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There are three definite articles in German: der, die, das. They are similar to the English article the. As the German language requires gender, the definite articles have to be adjusted to the gender and the number of the noun.
Not only gender and number affects the modification of definite article, but also the case. This table combines the change of the definite articles according to the cases, the number (singular or plural) and the genders of the noun that they appear in the sentence.
The definite articles are used in specific situations that are listed in this table below.
|Usage of definite articles||Example|
|When you are talking about something specific||
Der Hund holt die Zeitung. -
Das Fenster ist geschlossen. -
|When something has already been mentioned or you assume it to be generally know||
Das Eis schmeckt fantastisch. -
Der Eifelturm ist hoch. -
The pronouns listed in this table can be used as a companion of nouns and take the same grammatical endings as the definite articles.
|Other definite articles||Translation||Example|
Dieses Jahr fliege ich in den Urlaub. - This year I'm going on vacation.
Diese Schuhe gefallen mir sehr. - I really like these shoes.
Jenes Haus ist alt. - That house is old.
Jene Schwestern sind verstritten. - Those sisters are disputed.
Wir erfüllen jeden Wunsch. - We fulfill every wish.
Nicht jeder kann einen Handstand machen. - Not everyone can do a handstand.
Manche Übungen sind schwer. - Some excercise are difficult.
Manche Leute sind unhöflich. - Some people are rude.
Ich trage solche Schuhe nicht! - I do not wear such shoes!
Solche FIlme schaue ich gerne. - I like to watch such film.
Welche Straße führt ins Zentrum? - Which street leads to the centre?
Difference between dieser and jener: Dieser or jene refer to a past state of affairs or a person who has already been mentioned in conversation or text. Dieser expresses spatial or temporal proximity, whereas jener indicates distance.
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