• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • Present perfect (Perfekt) in German

    Exercises

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    1. Exercise of present perfect (sein) Score -/-
    2. Exercise of the present participle (haben) Score -/-
    3. Exercise of the present participle Score -/-

    Definition and usage of the present perfect tense (Perfekt) in German 

    The present perfect can either be used to refer to a completed action in the past, or to explain actions that begun in the past, but are not finished yet. The present perfect (Perfekt) is the past tense that is most often used to describe events from the past in spoken language, instead of the simple past (Präteritum).

    Example of the use of the perfect:

    • Gestern hat sich Stefanie im Fitness-Studio angemeldet. (She registered at the fitness center yesterday.)
    • Ich habe vor einer Woche angefangen für dieses Test zu lernen. (I started learning for this test one week ago.)

    Explanation of the example:

    • 1st sentence: The action is enclosed, because it was a single action that took place yesterday.
    • 2nd sentence: The action begun in the past (one week ago), but is not enclosed yet.

    Marker words that indicate the present perfect in German

    There are some marker words, that are often used in combination with the present perfect. See some of them in the table below.

    Marker word Translation
    gestern yesterday
    vor einer Woche/einer Minute/zehn Tagen one week/one minute/ten days ago
    heute früh/heute Nachmittag this morning/this afternoon
    gestern früh/ gestern Nachmittag yesterday morning/yesterday afternoon
    schon already
    gerade just

     

    For example:

    • Ich habe gerade einen Kuchen gebacken. (I just baked a cake.)
    • Hast du dich schon angemeldet? (Have you already registered?)
    • Heute früh haben wir verschlafen. (This morning we overslept.)

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    How to form the verbs in the present perfect with examples

    To form the present perfect in German, we use the present tense of one of the auxiliaries sein or haben in combination with the participle II of the main verb. Click on the link, if you need more information on how to built the participle II. So, the general structure is made by using the prefix 'ge-':

    • right conjugation of one of the auxiliaries sein or haben (in present tense) + ge - infinitive stem - -t, -et, -en
    • for example: wir haben gesungen

    Conjugation of auxiliaries sein and haben

    In the table below, you can see how the auxiliaries are declined in the right way.

    Subject sein  haben
    ich bin habe
    du bist hast
    er/ sie/ es ist hat
    wir sind haben 
    ihr seid habt
    sie/Sie sind haben

     

    enlightenedThe auxiliaries you find above are conjugated irregularly. Try to keep them in your mind and learn them by heart.

     

    Conjugation of past participle of weak verbs

    The typical construction of the past participle of a weak verb, looks le following way:

    • ge- + infinitive sten + -t or -et

     

    Infinitive of the verb Verb stem Ending Participle
    leben (to live) leb- -t gelebt
    lachen (to laugh) lach- -t gelacht
    fragen (to ask) frag- -t gefragt
    arbeiten (to work) arbeit- -et gearbeitet
    öffnen (to open up) öffne- -et geöffnet
    atmen (to breath) atm- -et geatmet

     

    Here are some example sentences:

    • Wir haben ihn gefragt. (We asked him.)
    • Er hat für uns gearbeitet. (He worked for us.)
    • Ihr habt ziemlich laut gelacht. (You laughed pretty loud.)

     

    Conjugation of past participle of strong verbs

    The past participle of strong verbs is formed by adding the perfix ge- and the ending -en:

    • ge- + infinitive sten + -en

     

    Infinitive of the verb Verb stem Ending Participle
    singen (to sing) sing- -en gesungen
    sprechen (to speak) sprech- -en gesprochen
    brechen (to break) brech- -en gebrochen
    nehmen (to take) nehm- -en genommen
    lesen (to read) les- -en gelesen
    sehen (to see) seh- -en gesehen

     

    Find some example sentences below:

    • Wir haben während der Autofahrt gesungen. (We sang during the car ride.)
    • Du hast dein Versprechen gebrochen. (You broke your promise.)
    • Sie haben den ersten Bus zurück genommen. (They took the first bus back.) 

    When to use sein or haben + participle II?

    Usage of sein and participle II and examples

    You should use the auxiliary verb sein in combination with the participle, if:

    Usage Examples
    the verb in the sentence has a direct object Stefanie hat ihr Zimmer aufgeräumt. (Stefanie  cleaned up her room.)
    the verb in the sentence has no direct object Stefanie hat aufgeräumt. (She cleaned up.)
    the sentence contains of a reflexive verb Stefanie hat sich verändert. (Stefanie has changed.)

    Haben and participle II

    You should use the auxiliary verb haben and the participle to use the present perfect, if:

    Usage Examples
    the sentence contains of a verb of movement (without direct object), e.g. gehen, laufen, rennen, etc. Wir sind in seinen Garten gegangen. (We went to his garden.)
    the verbs describes changed in the situation, e.g. einschlafen, aufwachen, etc. Sie ist aus ihren Träumen aufgewacht. (She woke up from her dreams.)
    the sentence contains of bleiben, sein, werden Es ist ihm gelungen. (He has succeeded.)

     

    yes Don't forget to try out free exercises, to test your knowledge about the present perfect in German.