• German grammar
  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • What are personal pronouns in German?

    Personal pronouns in German are replacements for already mentioned nouns. Personal pronouns are also used to address other people or to talk about ourselves.

    ich, du, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, sie in German

      Personal Pronoun English Translation  Examples Function
    1st person singular ich I
    • Ich bin zwanzig Jahre alt. - I am twenty years old.
    to talk about the own person

    2nd person singular

    du you 
    • Du siehst traurig aus. - You look sad.
    to address one person 
    3rd person singular er / sie / es he / she /it
    • Ist das Auto neu? Es gefällt mir. - Is that car new? I like it.
    to replace an already known noun ('das Auto')
    1st person plural wir we
    • Wir lernen Deutsch. - We learn German.
    to talk about several people including the own person
    2nd person plural ihr you 
    • Ihr habt spaẞ. - You have fun. 
    to address several people 
    3rd person plural sie they
    • Ich besuche oft meine Großeltern. Sie freuen sich jedes mal. - I often visit my grandparents. They are happy every time.
    to replace an already known noun ('die Großelern')


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    Declension of personal pronouns

    Personal pronouns have to be declined in: 

    1. number (singular, plural)
    2. gender in third-person singular (masculine, feminine, neuter) 
    3. case (nominative, dative, accusative, genitive)

    How to decline the personal pronouns?

      Nominative Dative Accusative Genitive 
    1st person singular ich mir  mich meiner
    2nd person singular du dir dich deiner
    3rd person singular er / sie / es ihm / ihr / ihm ihn / sie / es seiner / ihrere / seiner
    1rst person plural wir uns uns unser
    2nd person plural ihr euch euch euer
    3rd person plural sie ihnen sie ihrer



    Nominative case of personal pronouns

    The nominative case is always used as subject of the sentence.


    • Ich reise gern. - I like to travel.
    • Du bist mein Freund. You are my Friend.
    • Er/sie/es ist lustig. - He/she/it is funny.
    • Wir haben Hunger. we are hungry.
    • Wo kommt ihr her? - Where are you from?
    • Sie sind Wilkommen. They are welcome.


    Dative case of personal pronouns 

    The dative is the indirect object of the sentence.


    • Meine Kollegen helfen mir. - My colleagues help me.
    • Gefällt dir die Jacke? - Do you like the jacket?
    • Ich habe ihm/ihr zugesehen. - I watched him/her/it.
    • Er vertraut uns.  -  He trusts us.
    • Das Auto gehört euch. - That car is yours.
    • Ihnen ist warm. - They're warm. 

    When do we use the dative case?

    There are some linked verbs and prepositions which request the dative case:

      Examples English Translation








    to like

    to buy

    to trust

    to belong

    to answer

    to help













    thanks to








    Accusative case of personal pronouns 

    The dative is used as direct object of the sentence.


    • Er hat mich getroffen.He met me.
    • Deine Mutter ruft dich an. - Your mother calls you.
    • Hast du ihn/sie/es gesehen? - Did you see him/her/it? 
    • Hans hat uns nicht gefragt.  - Hans didn't ask us.
    • Es ist schön euch zu sehen! - It's nice to see you
    • Ich habe sie nicht verstanden? - I didn't understand them?

    When do we use the accusative case?

    There are some linked verbs and prepositions which request the accusative case:

      Examples English Translation








    to see

    to ask

    to eat

    to drink

    to understand

    to buy















    Genitive case of personal pronouns

    Genitive forms of personal pronouns in German exist but are very rarely used.


    • Wir erinnern uns seiner. - We remember him.  
    • Gott, erbarme dich unser- God, have mercy on us!

    enlightenedIf you require more information about which case to use, check out the German cases.

    Polite form (Höflichkeitsform) of personal pronouns in German

    What is the polite form of personal pronouns in German?

    The personal pronoun used as polite form is the word 'Sie'

    'Sie' is...

    • ... the formal equivalent to the informal form 'du'.
    • ... always capitalized.
    • ... similar declined as the third-person plural form.
    • ... identical in singular and plural.
    • ... indicating respect.

    Use of the german Höflichkeitsform

    'Sie' is used to address older people, strangers or people of higher hierarchical rank e.g. in student-teacher or employee-employer relations.

    Normally 'Sie' is used for people you would call by their surname while 'du' is used for people you would call by their first name.

    It is not likely to use the polite form to address friends, family members or kids.

    Declension of the polite form 'Sie'

    Case Personal Pronoun (singular and plural) Example
    Nominative Sie
    • Sind Sie der neue Lehrer? - Are you the new teacher?
    Dative Ihnen
    • Ich schreibe Ihnen einen Brief. - I write you a letter.
    Accusative Sie
    • Ich lade Sie zum Abendessen ein. - I invite you to have dinner.
    Genitive Ihrer
    • Sie haben Ihrer gedacht. - They thought of you.

    Important indefinite pronouns in German ('es' and 'man')

    The pronoun 'es' can also be used as en indefinite pronoun for impersonal formulations.


    • Es regnet. - It is raining.
    • Es ist Weihnachten. - It's Christmas.

    The indefinite pronoun 'man' is refering to one or more unspecified people. like 'es' it is a third-person singular pronoun and exclusively used in the nominative form.


    • Man darf am Bahnhof nicht rauchen. - One must not smoke at the train station.
    • Wenn es regnet, wird man nass. - If it rains, one gets wet.

    enlightenedRemember: The indefinite pronouns are third-person singular pronouns and therefore the connected verb does always stand in third-person singular form as well!