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Personal pronouns in German are replacements for already mentioned nouns. Personal pronouns are also used to address other people or to talk about ourselves.
|Personal Pronoun||English Translation||Examples||Function|
|1st person singular||ich||I||
||to talk about the own person|
2nd person singular
||to address one person|
|3rd person singular||er / sie / es||he / she /it||
||to replace an already known noun ('das Auto')|
|1st person plural||wir||we||
||to talk about several people including the own person|
|2nd person plural||ihr||you||
||to address several people|
|3rd person plural||sie||they||
||to replace an already known noun ('die Großelern')|
Personal pronouns have to be declined in:
|1st person singular||ich||mir||mich||meiner|
|2nd person singular||du||dir||dich||deiner|
|3rd person singular||er / sie / es||ihm / ihr / ihm||ihn / sie / es||seiner / ihrere / seiner|
|1rst person plural||wir||uns||uns||unser|
|2nd person plural||ihr||euch||euch||euer|
|3rd person plural||sie||ihnen||sie||ihrer|
The nominative case is always used as subject of the sentence.
The dative is the indirect object of the sentence.
When do we use the dative case?
There are some linked verbs and prepositions which request the dative case:
The dative is used as direct object of the sentence.
When do we use the accusative case?
There are some linked verbs and prepositions which request the accusative case:
Genitive forms of personal pronouns in German exist but are very rarely used.
If you require more information about which case to use, check out the German cases.
The personal pronoun used as polite form is the word 'Sie'.
'Sie' is used to address older people, strangers or people of higher hierarchical rank e.g. in student-teacher or employee-employer relations.
Normally 'Sie' is used for people you would call by their surname while 'du' is used for people you would call by their first name.
It is not likely to use the polite form to address friends, family members or kids.
|Case||Personal Pronoun (singular and plural)||Example|
The pronoun 'es' can also be used as en indefinite pronoun for impersonal formulations.
The indefinite pronoun 'man' is refering to one or more unspecified people. like 'es' it is a third-person singular pronoun and exclusively used in the nominative form.
Remember: The indefinite pronouns are third-person singular pronouns and therefore the connected verb does always stand in third-person singular form as well!
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