The following chapter will deal with the use of demonstrative adjectives in German and their differences to demonstrative pronouns.
Demonstrative adjectives describe which noun you are talking about in a sentence and stand right before the noun. There is often a confusion about what are demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns. This often occurs, because the same words are used for both types.
To use demonstrative adjectives, you have to make a distinction between:
When something is near by, the right words to demonstrate a noun are dieser, diese and dieses. To use it correctly, you have to further decide on the number and the gender of the noun.
|Nouns that are nearby||Singular||Plural|
|Masculine||dieser (this)||diese (these)|
|Feminine||diese (this)||diese (these)|
|Neuter||dieses (this)||diese (these)|
Keep in mind, that the noun needs to be declined in accordance to the number and gender of it.
On the opposite, if something is far away you have to use the demonstrative adjectives jener, jene and jenes. Again, you will have to decide on the gender and number of the noun.
|Nouns that are far away||Singular||Plural|
|Masculine||jener (that)||jene (those)|
|Feminine||jene (that)||jene (those)|
|Neuter||jenes (that)||jene (those)|
Examples of the use of jener, jene, jenes
The difference between demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns is nearly the same as with possessive adjectives and pronouns:
|Sentence with demonstrative pronoun||Sentence with demonstrative adjective|
|Dieses ist sehr gut. (This one is very good.)||Dieses Buch ist sehr gut. (This book is very good.)|
|Diese sind sehr teuer. (These are really expensive.)||Diese Bücher sind sehr teuer. (These books are very expensive.)|
|Welche Tasche magst du am meisten? Jene! (Which bag do you like the most? That one!)||Welche Tasche magst du am meisten? Ich mag jene Tasche am liebsten! (Which bag do you like the most? I like that one the most!)|
|Hast du dies gesehen? (Have you seen this?)||Hast du diese Seite gesehen? (Have you seen this page?)|
To learn more about the use of demonstrative pronouns, see the chapter about German demonstrative pronouns.
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