• German grammar
    0%
  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • What is the grammatical category of a word?

    The grammatical category of a word is the category to which it belongs. Indeed, all the words can be grouped in the same category according to the characteristics that are similar. 

    function of words

    1. German nouns 

    Nouns are categorized in three different categories. 

    gender masculine, feminine, neuter
    case nominative, genitive, accusative, dative
    number singular, plural 

    Die Katzen der Männer sind lieb. - The cats of the men are nice. 

    gender masculine
    case genitive
    number plural

     

    Study this lesson together with a teacher

    Studying on your own is not effective since nobody guides you and you do not receive any feedback. Ask help from one of our professional teachers!

    Get a free trial lesson!
    View teachers

    2. German articles

    Articles accompany a nouns. An article in the narrow sense is the definite and indefinite article of der, die and das. Article can be inflected (declined) and adapt the gender and number of the noun.

    Die Katzen der Männer sind lieb. - The cats of the men are nice.

    gender  feminine
    case nominative
    number plural 

     

    3. German verbs

    Verbs express actions, events, and states. A verb is the predicate of a sentence. A predicate contains at least one finite verb form (= in number and person defined). Verbs can be inflected (conjugated). A verb expresses Person, number, mood, tense and the active or passive state. 

    Ich gehe zur Arbeit. - I go to work.

    number which person (singular or plural )  1. person singular
    mood indicative or subjunctive I / subjunctive II indicative
    tense present, simple past, future I,... present tense
    state  active or passive active

     

    4. German adjectives 

    Adjectives serve to attribute to a living thing, an object, an action, a state, etc., a property, a particular trait. They can have the following functions

    modifier of a noun das aufregende Spiel the exciting game
    modifier of an adjective or adverb typisch türkische Speisen typical turkish dishes.
    predicative das Spiel ist aufregend the game is exciting
    adverb gut Golf spielen playing golf well

    Adjectives which function as modifier of a noun be inflected in gender, case and number. Adjective are mostly not inflected in other positions of a sentence.

    Das Ergebnis der schweren Klausur ist online. - The result of the hard exam is online.

    gender feminine
    case genitive
    number singular

     

    5. German pronouns

    According to the classical definition, a pronoun is a word which  stand for another word (a noun). There are seven classes of pronouns.

    personal  a personal pronouns refers to a specific person, a group of people or an object. Ich sehe dich. I see you.
    possessive  they are used to show, that a noun belongs to somebody or something. Das ist meine Katze. That is my cat.
    demonstrative  these pronouns are used when referring to something that is already defined. Ja, die sehe ich. Yes, I see that.
    interrogative  there are interrogative pronouns, so called "question words". Wo bist du? Where are you?
    reflexive  they are part of the verb which refers to someone. Ich habe mich geschnitten. I cut myself.
    indefinite they are used to link to subjects or objects that are not defined. Man kann es schaffen. It is doable.
    relative  they describe the nouns more precisely. Das Mädchen, das Sport mag The girl, that likes sport.

     

    6. German adverbs

    The adverb refers to the circumstances in which an action is happening. For example, there are adverbs  of time, place and frequency. Adverbs can be used in different situations: 

    for a verb Wir sind dorthin gefahren We were driving there.
    for an adjective Das Leben ist besonders schön. Life is especially nice.
    for an adverb Wir sehen uns sehr bald We will see us very soon.
    predicative for nouns Der Tisch ist dort. The table is over there.
    attributive for nouns Der Tisch dort ist dir. The table over there is yours.

     

    7. German prepositions

    Prepositions connect words and groups of words. They refer to a local, temporal, modal or causal relationship between two things.

    temporal Wir kennen uns seit Ewigkeiten. We know each other since an eternity.
    modal  Nur mit großem Aufwand gelang es. Only with great effort was it accomplished
    causal Wegen des Unwetters ist alles zerstört. Because of the storm everything is destroyed
    local Die Flasche steht auf dem Tisch. The bottle is on the table.

     

    8. What to know about the German sentence structure

    Let's have a look at the following example: 

    subject Maria wirft den Apfel Maria throws the apple.  subject is always in the nominative case, it is the initial point of an action
    predicate Maria wirft den Apfel. Maria throws the apple. central action of a sentence, at least one finite form of verb
    object  Maria wirft den Apfel.  Maris throws the apple. accusativeobject (Wen/was?)
    object  Der Apfel gehört ihr The apple is hers. dativeobject  (Wem?)
    object  Der Apfel ist ihrer. The apple is hers. genitiveobject (Wessen?)
    object  Sie denkt an ihn.  She thinks of him. prepositional object