• German grammar
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  • 1 German pronunciation [0/1]
  • 2 German functions of words [0/5]
  • 3 German sentence structure [0/28]
  • Construct a German sentence! (Score -/-)Free
  • Make a German indirect speech! (Score -/-)Free
  • 3.1 Sentence structure of main clauses in German [0/4]
  • 3.2 Dependent clauses in German [0/12]
  • 3.3 Negation in German [0/3]
  • 3.4 Questions in German [0/2]
  • 3.5 Indirect speech in German [0/2]
  • 3.6 Conjunctions in German [0/3]
  • 4 German Articles [0/7]
  • 5 German nouns [0/28]
  • Fill in the correct form of the German noun! (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the correct plural form of the German nouns! (Score -/-)Free
  • Fill in the correct definite and indefinite article! (Score -/-)Free
  • Translate these nouns into German (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the right German word to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • 5.1 Gender of German nouns (substantives) - der, die, das [0/9]
  • 5.2 Plural of German nouns [0/4]
  • 5.3 German declension (N-declension) [0/4]
  • 5.4 Diminutive (-lein, -chen) in German [0/3]
  • 5.5 Compound nouns in German [0/2]
  • 5.6 Adjectives and verbs as nouns in German [0/1]
  • 6 German pronouns [0/19]
  • 7 German cases [0/13]
  • 8 German adjectives [0/29]
  • Exercise for building German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine the form of use of these German adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • Transform these German adjectives to their nominal form (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the comparative and superlative of these German adjectives (Score -/-)Free
  • Insert the German attributive adjective! (Score -/-)Free
  • 8.1 Different types of adjectives in German [0/3]
  • 8.2 How to form German adjectives [0/1]
  • 8.3 German participle as adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.4 Comparative and superlative adjectives in German [0/4]
  • 8.5 Declension of German adjectives [0/2]
  • 8.6 Forming and declension of ordinal numbers in German [0/2]
  • 8.7 Possessive adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.8 Demonstrative adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.9 Interrogative and exclamatory adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.10 Indefinite adjectives in German [0/2]
  • 8.11 List of German Adjectives [0/2]
  • 9 German adverbs [0/13]
  • 10 German verbs [0/67]
  • Match the correct German verb to the sentences (Score -/-)Free
  • Form the German simple past and participle II form (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to match the right German auxiliary verb! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the right conjugation of the German verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • Build the German form of politeness! (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.1 Auxiliary verbs in German [0/5]
  • 10.2 Modal verbs in German [0/8]
  • 10.3 Separable and inseparable verbs in German [0/3]
  • 10.4 Conjugation of regular verbs (weak verbs) in German
  • 10.5 Conjugation of irregular verbs (strong verbs) in German [0/45]
  • Exercise: German irregular verbs (Score -/-)Free
  • 10.5.1 Conjugation of geben (to give) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.2 Conjugation of gehen (to walk, to go) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.3 Conjugation of lassen (to let) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.4 Conjugation of nehmen (to take) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.5 Conjugation of fahren (to drive) German [0/2]
  • 10.5.6 Conjugation of essen (to eat) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.7 Conjugation of lesen (to read) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.8 Conjugation of sehen (to see) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.9 Conjugation of kommen (to come) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.10 Conjugation of trinken (to drink) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.11 Conjugation of schlafen (to sleep) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.12 Conjugation of gefallen (to please) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.13 Conjugation of schreiben (to write) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.14 Conjugation of helfen (to help) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.15 Conjugation of laufen (to run) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.16 Conjugation of treffen (to meet, to hit) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.17 Conjugation of tragen (to carry) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.18 Conjugation of bleiben (to stay) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.19 Conjugation of schwimmen (to swim) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.20 Conjugation of finden (to find) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.21 Conjugation of waschen (to wash) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.22 Conjugation of bekommen (to get) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.23 Cojugation of bringen (to bring) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.24 Conjugation of sprechen (to speak) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.25 Conjugation of heißen (to be called) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.26 Conjugation of fliegen (to fly) in German [0/2]
  • 10.5.27 Conjugation of backen (to bake) in German [0/1]
  • 10.5.28 Conjugation of steigen (to rise) in German [0/1]
  • 10.6 List of common verbs in German [0/1]
  • 11 German prepositions [0/27]
  • Spot all the used German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Match the German prepositions! (Score -/-)Free
  • Prepositions and German grammar cases! (Score -/-)Free
  • Determine which kind of German preposition is being used! (Score -/-)Free
  • Complete the verbs and adjectives! (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Locative prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.2 Temporal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.3 Modal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.4 Causal prepositions in German [0/2]
  • 11.5 German prepositions requiring the genitive [0/2]
  • 11.6 German prepositions requiring the dative [0/2]
  • 11.7 German Prepositions requiring the accusative [0/2]
  • 11.8 German prepositions with either dative or accusative [0/2]
  • 11.9 German prepositions and articles [0/2]
  • 11.10 German prepositions with verbs [0/2]
  • 11.11 German prepositions and adjectives [0/2]
  • 12 Tenses and conjugation of German verbs [0/23]
  • Form the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • Choose the correct German tense! (Score -/-)Free
  • 12.1 Present tense (Präsens) in German [0/4]
  • 12.2 Simple past tense (Präteritum) in German [0/4]
  • 12.3 Present perfect (Perfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.4 Past perfect tense (Plusquamperfekt) in German [0/3]
  • 12.5 German future I [0/4]
  • 12.6 German Future II [0/3]
  • 13 Infinitive in German [0/8]
  • 14 Imperative in German [0/3]
  • 15 Subjunctive in German [0/6]
  • 16 Active and passive voice in German [0/2]
  • 17 Participle in German [0/6]
  • German participle as adjectives

    Exercises

    0%
    1. Build the correct participle form! Score -/-
    2. Exercise on present and past participles used as adjectives Score -/-

    Participles are known as kinds of a verb. Therefore, in German there are used two different participles: the present and the past participle.

    Present participle used as an adjective

    The present participle is used, when two events happen at the same time. This kind of participle is always used as an adjective.

    Sentence without a participle Sentence with a participle
    Das Kind weint und steht im Garten. (The child is crying and is standing in the garden.) Das weinende Kind steht im Garten. (The crying child is standing in the garden.)
    Die Frau schreit und rennt aus dem Haus. (The child is crying and runs out of the house.) Die schreiende Frau rennt aus dem Haus. (The screaming women runs out of the house.)

     

    enlightenedAs you might have recognized, the words weint and schreit are returned into the infinitive form and an -de was added to make it a present participle.

    Declension of present participles

    By using the present participle as an adjective, it has to be declined in order to adjust it to the noun it describes, depending on the gender, case and number of the noun. Due to different articles used, there exist different forms of declensions: weak declension (with a definite article), mixed declension (with an indefinite article) and strong declension (no preceding article)If you want to learn more about the four german cases just have a look at the special chapter about it.

    Starting with the weak declension:

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative der weinende Junge die weinende Puppe das weinende Mädchen die weinenden Kinder
    Accusative den weinenden Jungen die weinende Puppe das weinende Mädchen die weinenden Kinder
    Dative dem weinenden Jungen der weinenden Puppe dem weinenden Mädchen den weinenden Kinder
    Genitive des weinenden Jungen der weinenden Puppe des weinenden Mädchens der weinenden Kinder

     

    Coming to the mixed declension:

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative ein weinender Junge eine weinende Puppe ein weinendes Mädchen einige weinende Kinder
    Accusative einen weinenden Jungen eine weinende Puppe ein weinendes Mädchen einige weinende Kinder
    Dative einem weinenden Jungen einer weinenden Puppe einem weinenden Mädchen einigen weinenden Kindern
    Genitive eines weinenden Jungen einer weinenden Puppe eines weinenden Mädchens einiger weinender Kinder

     

    And the strong declension:

      Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    Nominative weinender Junge weinende Puppe weinendes Mädchen weinende Kinder
    Accusative weinenden Jungen weinende Puppe weinendes Mädchen weinende Kinder
    Dative weinendem Jungen weinender Puppe weinendem Mädchen weinenden Kindern
    Genitive weinendes Jungens weinender Puppe weinendes Mädchens weinender Kinder

     

    enlightenedIt's also possible that the participle is in a non-attributive function, meaning that the participle is isolated in the sentence. For instance, "Der Auftrag ist dringend." (The order is urgent."). Then the -d ending is enough.

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    Past participle used as an adjective in German

    The past participle, in contrast, signals that the noun of a sentence is in a certain condition or that two actions didn't happen at the same time. Many weak and strong verbs can be used as adjectives.

    Sentence without participle Sentence with participle
    Ich verkaufe das Auto. Das Auto ist gebraucht. (I am selling my car. The car is used.) Ich verkaufe mein gebrauchtes Auto. (I am selling my used car.)

    Die Frau ist gebildet und ist Professorin. (The women is well eductaed and is a professor.)

    Die gebildete Frau ist Professorin. (The well educated women is a professor.)

    Construction of past participles

    By constructing the past participle you have to be careful, because you need to transform the verb of a sentence into an adjective. By doing so, there are different options:

    1. Transformation of regular verbs without a prefix
    2. Transformation of regular verbs with seperable prefix
    3. Transformation of regular verbs with inseperable prefix
    4. Transformation of verbs ending with -ieren
    5. Transformation of strong verbs

    1. Transformation for regular verbs without a prefix

    • construction: ge - verb stem - (e)t
    Infinitiv Past participle Example
    kaufen (to buy) ge-kauf-t Bring bitte den gekauften Regenschirm mit. (Please bring the bought umbrella.)
    öffnen (to open ge-öffn-et Bitte mach das geöffnete Fenster zu. (Please close the opened window.)

     

    2. Transformation of regular verbs with separable prefix

    • construction: seperable prefix - ge - verb stem - (e)t
    Infinitiv Past participle Example
    aufrunden (to round sth. up) auf-ge-rund-et Ich habe die Summe aufgerundet. (I rounded the sum up.)
    angebrannt (to be burnt) an-ge-brann-t Die Suppe ist angebrannt. (The soup is burnt.)

     

    3. Transformation of regular verbs with inseparable prefix

    • construction: inseparable prefix - verb stem(e)t
    Infinitiv Past participle Example
    zerstören (to destroy) zer-stör-t Die zersörte Stadt wird wieder aufgebaut. (the destroyed city will be rebuilt.)
    entwickeln (to develop) ent-wickel-t Das entwickelte Computerprogramm ist gut. (The developed computer program is good.)

     

    4. Transformation of verbs ending with -ieren

    • construction: verb stem - t
    Infinitiv Past participle Example
    repapieren (to fix) reparier-t Wo steht das reparierte Auto? (Where is the fixed car?
    studieren studier-t Der studierte Informatiker weiß viel. (The studied computer scientist knows a lot.)

     

    5. Transformation of strong verbs

    • construction: ge - verb stem - en
    Infinitiv Past participle Example
    kommen (to come) ge-komm-en Der gestern gekommene Katalog ist schön. (The catalog which arrived yesterday is fine.)
    fahren (to drive) ge-fahr-en Die gefahrene Route war schneller. (The droven route was faster.)

     

    enlightenedThere are some exceptions to this rule, for instance the verbs sein (gewesen), haben (gehabt), werden (geworden).