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The present perfect (Spanish: pretérito perfecto compuesto) is one of several compound tenses used in Spanish and English. As in English, it is used to indicate that the action may be still going on. The pretérito perfecto compuesto has two parts:
Pretérito perfecto compuesto = haber (presente) + participio
|Personal pronouns||Auxiliary haber in present|
The participle is derived from the infinitive of the verb. The endings (-ar / -er / -ir) are replaced by the participle endings (-ado / -ido / -ido).
|Verbs in -ar||Verbs in -er||Verbs in -ir|
|The verb ending is replaced by -ADO||The verb ending is replaced by -IDO||The verb ending is replaced by -IDO|
hablar → habladoviajar → viajado
comer → comidobeber → bebido
vivir → vividosentir→ sentido
The complete formation of the pretérito perfecto compuesto is made with the conjugated form of the auxiliary verb haber in the present tense and the participle form of the verb:
|Personal pronoun||Auxiliary haber in present||Participio|
There are a few irregular participles in Spanish. Here is a list of the most important exceptions:
|abrir (to open)||abierto (opened)|
|cubrir (to cover)||cubierto (covered)|
|decir (to say)||dicho (said)|
|devolver (to return /to give back)||devuelto (returned)|
|disolver (to dissolve)||disuelto (dissolved)|
|escribir (to write)||escrito (written)|
|hacer (to do)||hecho (done)|
|ir (to go)||ido (gone)|
|morir (to die)||muerto (died)|
|poner (to put)||puesto (put)|
|romper (to break)||roto (broken)|
|ser (to be)||sido (been)|
|ver (to see)||visto (seen)|
|volver (to come back)||vuelto (come)|
In English we use the perfect tense to talk about what has or hasn't happened today, this week, this year, or in our lives up to now. In Spanish we use it in a similar way.
We use the present perfect (pretérito perfecto compuesto) in Spanish with the following words:
|esta semana/ este año/ etc.||this week/ this year/ etc||
Este año he tenido muchos constipados.
This year I have caught a lot of colds.
Hoy he ido nadar.
Today I went swimming.
|todavia no||not yet||
Todavia no he comido.
I havent had lunch yet.
Ya lo he visto.
I have seen it already.
Ultimamente he comido mucha fruta.
I have eaten a lot of fruit lately.
|hasta ahora||up to now/ so far/ until now/ to date||
No me han dicho nada hasta ahora.
I havent got any news so far.
Hoy ha sido un día especial. Es mi cumpleaños. No he ido a trabajar y me he levantado más tarde. He desayunado unas tostadas con tomate y he bebido un café con leche. Después, me he vestido y he salido de casa para comprar el periódico. Me he sentado en una terraza al sol y he leído el periódico.
Autora: Victoria Monera
Today was a special day. It's my birthday. I haven’t gone to work and I've gotten up later. I had some toast with tomato and I a coffee with milk for breakfast. Then I got dressed and left the house to buy the newspaper. I have sat on a terrace in the sun and have read the newspaper.
Written by: Victoria Monera
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