Formation of adverbs in Spanish (-mente)
Spanish adverbs appear in a wide variety of forms:
- adverbs with -mente
- adverbial expressions
- adverbs with no pattern of origination
- adjectives as adverbs
1. Adverbs with -mente
Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -mente to the feminine form of adjectives.
This ending corresponds to -ly in English.
When adjectives end in -e or a consonant, the suffix -mente is added in the singular form.
* If an adjective has an accent mark, the corresponding adverb retains the accent mark.
When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one uses the -mente ending.
Juan le habló clara y seriamente. (Juan talked to him/her clearly and seriously.)
2. Adverbial expressions
In everyday language, -mente adverbs would be likely replaced by the following adverbial expressions:
- preposition + adjective
- preposition + noun
|Adverbial expression||English translation|
|a menudo||frequently, often|
|al final||in the end|
|al mismo tiempo||at the same time|
|de día||in the daytime|
|de noche||at night|
|por supuesto||of course|
|sin duda||without a doubt|
|sin razón||without (a) reason|
Other adverbial expressions
Other adverbial expressions are formed with verb forms and other adverbs.
|Adverbial expression||English translation|
|aquí abajo||down here|
|al atardecer||at dusk|
|al frente de||in front of|
|al salir el sol||at sunrise|
|allí arriba||up there|
|cerca de||near (to)|
|de ahora en adelante||from now on|
|de veras||really, truly|
|de vez en cuando||once in a while|
|desde aquí||from here|
|desde entonces||since then|
|hasta aquí||up to here|
|por lo visto||apparently, evidently|
3. Adverbs with no pattern of origination
Some adverbs do not follow any pattern of origination, and need to be memorized.
4. Adjectives as adverbs
Some adjectives serve as adverbs as well.
When used as adverbs, these forms do not change in gender and number.
|Adjective as adverb||English translation|
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