• Spanish grammar
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  • 1 Spanish alphabet [0/1]
  • 2 Spanish articles [0/6]
  • 3 Spanish nouns [0/8]
  • 4 Spanish adjectives [0/17]
  • 5 Spanish numbers [0/6]
  • 6 Spanish pronouns [0/32]
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Flashcards (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Type identification (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish practice quiz - Drag and drop the pronoun (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronouns in Spanish practice quiz (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Fill in the blanks (Score -/-)Free
  • 6.1 Spanish personal pronouns [0/15]
  • 6.2 Spanish reflexive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.3 Spanish possessive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.4 Spanish demonstrative pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.5 Spanish interrogative pronouns [0/3]
  • 6.6 Spanish relative pronouns [0/3]
  • 7 Adverbs in Spanish [0/18]
  • 8 Sentence structure and word order in Spanish [0/4]
  • 9 Spanish prepositions [0/2]
  • 10 Spanish tenses and verb conjugation [0/27]
  • 10.1 Present tense in Spanish (el presente) [0/3]
  • 10.2 Past tenses in Spanish (el pasado) [0/18]
  • 10.2.1 Pretérito perfecto simple (indefinido) in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.2 Pretérito perfecto compuesto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.3 Difference between Pretérito Perfecto and Indefinido [0/3]
  • 10.2.4 Pretérito Imperfecto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.5 Difference between imperfecto and indefinido [0/3]
  • 10.2.6 Pretérito pluscuamperfecto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.3 Future tense in Spanish (el futuro) [0/6]
  • 11 Difference between "ser" and "estar" in Spanish [0/3]
  • 12 Spanish verbs [0/6]
  • 13 Gerund in Spanish (el gerundio) [0/3]
  • 14 Imperative in Spanish (imperativo) [0/6]
  • 15 Passive in Spanish (voz pasiva) [0/3]
  • Spanish has two ways of expressing orders. The affirmative and the negative form of the imperative. Here is the affirmative form:

    Forming the imperative: Instructions TO DO something (imperativo affirmativo)

    The imperative does not exist for all "persons", but only for tú, nosotros, vosotros and usted or ustedes. The endings are significantly different from the endings of other tenses and must be memorized. What you have to keep in mind is that the vowels in some of the endings change. Some forms can also be found in the subjuntivo.

    Personal pronoun Imperative llamar Imperative beber Imperative escribir
    llama bebe escribe
    usted llame beba escriba
    nosotros/-as llamemos bebamos escribamos
    vosotros/-as llamad bebed escribid
    ustedes llamen beban escriban

    Formation of the imperative (affirmative) - tú  

    The formation of tú (2nd person-singular) can be derived from the 3rd person-singular of the Present (Indicative)

    Infinitive 3. Person Sing. Present 2. Person Sing. Imperative (affirmative)
    hablar habla habla
    llamar llama llama

    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Llama a tu amiga! (tú) (Call your friend!)
    • indicativo presente: (ella) Llama a su amiga(She calls her friend)

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    Formation of the imperative (affirmative)  - usted, ustedes and nosotros

    The imperative forms of usted (3rd person-singular) and ustedes (3rd person-plural), as well as nosotros (1st person plural) are formed "normally" as in the indicative present tense, but for verbs on -ar the vowel of the ending becomes e and for verbs on -er and -ir the vowel changes into an a. This pattern can also be found in the subjuntivo present.

    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Bebamos! (nosotros) (Let's drink!)
    • indicativo presente: Nosotros bebemos(We drink)

    Formation of the imperative (affirmative)  - vosotros

    The imperative form of vosotros (2nd person plural) can be derived from the infinitive. Only the r at the end of the infinitive is replaced by d.

    • infinitivo: escribir (to write)
    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Escribid! (Write!)

    Irregular forms in imperativo afirmativo

    Verbs that are already irregular in the 3rd person-singular (él, ella, usted) in the present tense (indicative) also have the same irregularity in the imperative 2nd person-singular. This applies to diphtong, vocal changes and changes due to the pronunciation rules.

    • indicativo presente: Empieza. (He/She starts)
    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Empieza! (Start!)
    • indicativo presente: Carlos vuelve a casa(Carlos comes back home)
    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Vuelve a casa! (Come back home!)
    • indicativo presente: Elige(He/She chooses)
    • imperativo afirmativo: ¡Elige! (Choose!)

    enlightenedFor a little refresh, you can check the present tense page again wink

    8 highly irregular verbs in Imperative

    The Spanish imperative has 8 highly irregular verbs (decir, hacer, ir, tener, venir, salir, traer and oír).

    Personal pronoun decir hacer ir tener
    di haz ve ten
    usted diga haga vaya tenga
    nosotros/-as digamos hagamos vayamos tengamos
    vosotros/-as decid haced id tened
    ustedes digan hagan vayan tengan
    ser venir salir traer oír
    ven sal trae oye
    sea venga salga traiga oiga
    seamos vengamos salgamos traigamos oigamos
    sed venid salid traed oíd
    sean vengan salgan traigan oigan

    Position of object pronouns

    If you are telling someone TO DO something, the object pronouns join on to the END of the verb. An accent is usually added to make sure that the stress in the imperative verb stays.

    • ¡Explícamelo! (Explain it to me!)
    • ¡Perdóneme! (Excuse-me!)
    • Dígame (Tell me)
    • Esperémosla (Let's wait for her)

    enlightenedNote that when there are two object pronouns, the indirect object pronoun always goes before the direct object pronoun.

    Don't forget to look at the negative imperative too! It is formed differently! wink