Spanish has two ways of expressing orders. The affirmative and the negative form of the imperative. Here is the affirmative form:
The imperative does not exist for all "persons", but only for tú, nosotros, vosotros and usted or ustedes. The endings are significantly different from the endings of other tenses and must be memorized. What you have to keep in mind is that the vowels in some of the endings change. Some forms can also be found in the subjuntivo.
|Personal pronoun||Imperative llamar||Imperative beber||Imperative escribir|
The formation of tú (2nd person-singular) can be derived from the 3rd person-singular of the Present (Indicative)
|Infinitive||3. Person Sing. Present||2. Person Sing. Imperative (affirmative)|
The imperative forms of usted (3rd person-singular) and ustedes (3rd person-plural), as well as nosotros (1st person plural) are formed "normally" as in the indicative present tense, but for verbs on -ar the vowel of the ending becomes e and for verbs on -er and -ir the vowel changes into an a. This pattern can also be found in the subjuntivo present.
The imperative form of vosotros (2nd person plural) can be derived from the infinitive. Only the r at the end of the infinitive is replaced by d.
Verbs that are already irregular in the 3rd person-singular (él, ella, usted) in the present tense (indicative) also have the same irregularity in the imperative 2nd person-singular. This applies to diphtong, vocal changes and changes due to the pronunciation rules.
For a little refresh, you can check the present tense page again
The Spanish imperative has 8 highly irregular verbs (decir, hacer, ir, tener, venir, salir, traer and oír).
If you are telling someone TO DO something, the object pronouns join on to the END of the verb. An accent is usually added to make sure that the stress in the imperative verb stays.
Note that when there are two object pronouns, the indirect object pronoun always goes before the direct object pronoun.
Don't forget to look at the negative imperative too! It is formed differently!
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