The Spanish present tense is used to talk about what is true at the moment, what happens regularly and what is happening now. Like the English one!
In Spanish, we use the present tense (Spanish: el presente) to talk about:
In Spanish there are regular and irregular present tense forms.
The present tense in Spanish is formed with the following endings:
|Pronouns||-ar verbs conjugated||-er verbs conjugated||-ir verbs conjugated|
|hablar (to speak)||comer (to eat)||vivir (to live)|
|Él / Ella||habla||come||vive|
|Ellos / ellas||hablan||comen||viven|
These verbs do not follow the pattern of the regular verbs. We have different types of irregular verbs:
In many verbs, the vowel in the stem of the verb changes to a diphthong. Unfortunately, there is no exact rule that makes clear whether a verb has a diphthong or not. Diphthongization changes -e- to -ie-, and -o- to -ue-. You will find a diphthong at all three-person singular and at the third-person plural.
|él / ella||quiere|
Other verbs that follow the same diphtong change:
|él / ella||puede|
Other important verbs with diphthong:
Attention: as a diphthong cannot be at the beginning due to pronunciation rules, oler becomes huelo, hueles ...
Here is jugar (play) the only example. But since it is a commonly used verb, you should also memorize this irregularity.
|él / ella||juega|
For some verbs ending in -ir, the stem vowel (vowel in the stem of the verb) changes during conjugation. This vowel change applies only to the three first persons in the singular and the third person plural.
|él / ella||pide|
The first person singular is completely irregular. All other persons follow the same patterns explained above.
|Infinitive||First person singular (yo)|
|hacer (to do)||hago (haces, hace…)|
|poner (to put)||pongo (pones, pone…)|
|saber (to know)||sé (sabes, sabe…)|
|salir (to leave)||salgo (sales, sale…)|
|traer (to bring)||traigo (traes, trae…)|
|caer (to fall)||caigo (caes,cae…)|
|dar (to give)||doy (das, da…)|
|valer (to be worth)||valgo (vales, vale…)|
|ver (to see)||veo (ves, ve…)|
ofrecer (to offer)
agradecer (to thank)
ofrezco (ofreces, ofrece…)
agradezco (agradeces, agradece…)
conocer (to know)
reconocer (to recognize)
conozco (conoces, conoce…)
reconozco (reconoces, reconoce…)
traducir (to translate)
conducir (to drive)
producir (to product)
traduzco (traduces, traduce…)
conduzco (conduces, conduce…)
produzco (produces, produce…)
coger (to take)
proteger (to protect)
protejo (protejes, proteje…)
restringir (to restrain)
dirigir (to direct)
restrinjo (restrinjes, restrinje…)
convencer (to convince)
vencer (to beat)
convenzo (convences, convence…)
venzo (vences, vence…)
Unfortunately, in Spanish there are some verbs with multiple irregularities or verbs that are completely irregular. These include some of the most important Spanish verbs such as ser (to be). Memorizing and practicing them is the only thing to do!
|tener (to have)||venir (to come)||decir (to say)|
|oir (to hear)||seguir (to follow)||ver (to see)|
|ser (to be)||estar (to be)||ir (to go)|
There are situations when you always have to use the present tense:
|Actions happening now||Amparo dibuja en su cuaderno.||Amparo draws in her notebook|
|Habits||Jorge sube por las escaleras.||Jorge always walks up the stairs|
|Orders||Coge una hoja y dibuja una casa.||Take a paper and draw a house|
|Reported speech||Ayer por la mañana me preguntó: “¿Qué escribes en el cuaderno?"||Yesterday morning he asked: What do you write in your notebook?|
Hoy voy al cine.Today I go to the cinema.
Generalmente voy al cine los lunes.I usually go to the cinema on Monday.
A veces como garbanzos.Sometimes I eat chickpeas.
|muchas veces||many times||
Muchas veces siento que no lo entiendo.Many times, I feel I don’t understand.
Siempre bebo agua por la mañana.I always drink water in the morning.
Nunca digas nunca.Never say never.
|varias veces||several times||
Voy a nadar varias veces a la semana.I go swimming several times a week.
Voy a menudo al mercado.I often go to the market.
|todos los días||every day||
Hago yoga todos los días.I do yoga every day.
|de vez en cuando||from time to time||
De vez en cuando bebo cerveza.I drink beer from time to time.
|casi nunca||almost never||
Casi nunca como pescado.I almost never eat fish.
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