• Spanish grammar
  • 1 Spanish alphabet [0/1]
  • 2 Spanish articles [0/6]
  • 3 Spanish nouns [0/8]
  • 4 Spanish adjectives [0/17]
  • 5 Spanish numbers [0/6]
  • 6 Spanish pronouns [0/32]
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Flashcards (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Type identification (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish practice quiz - Drag and drop the pronoun (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronouns in Spanish practice quiz (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Fill in the blanks (Score -/-)Free
  • 6.1 Spanish personal pronouns [0/15]
  • 6.2 Spanish reflexive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.3 Spanish possessive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.4 Spanish demonstrative pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.5 Spanish interrogative pronouns [0/3]
  • 6.6 Spanish relative pronouns [0/3]
  • 7 Adverbs in Spanish [0/18]
  • 8 Sentence structure and word order in Spanish [0/4]
  • 9 Spanish prepositions [0/2]
  • 10 Spanish tenses and verb conjugation [0/27]
  • 10.1 Present tense in Spanish (el presente) [0/3]
  • 10.2 Past tenses in Spanish (el pasado) [0/18]
  • 10.2.1 Pretérito perfecto simple (indefinido) in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.2 Pretérito perfecto compuesto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.3 Difference between Pretérito Perfecto and Indefinido [0/3]
  • 10.2.4 Pretérito Imperfecto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.2.5 Difference between imperfecto and indefinido [0/3]
  • 10.2.6 Pretérito pluscuamperfecto in Spanish [0/3]
  • 10.3 Future tense in Spanish (el futuro) [0/6]
  • 11 Difference between "ser" and "estar" in Spanish [0/3]
  • 12 Spanish verbs [0/7]
  • 13 Gerund in Spanish (el gerundio) [0/3]
  • 14 Imperative in Spanish (imperativo) [0/6]
  • 15 Passive in Spanish (voz pasiva) [0/3]
  • 16 Negation in Spanish [0/2]
  • Spanish alphabet

    The Spanish alphabet or abecedario is made up of 27 letters. It also includes an extra letter, the ñ, which is not part of the English alphabet.  

    The Spanish abecedario is divided into two main groups:

    • Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
    • Consonants: b, c, ch*, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, ll*, m, n, ñ, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z

    *Historically, Ch/Ll were considered distinct letters in Spanish. However, nowadays, they are not considered letters anymore according to the Real Académia Española.

    Spanish alphabet pronunciation

    The table here below displays the letters of the Spanish alphabet and it will give you some tips on how to pronounce them alone and in combination with others letters.

    A, B, C, CH, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, LL, M, N, Ñ, O, P Q, R, RR, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z


    Letter name 

    Pronunciation tips



    Animal (animal)



    The Spanish B is pretty similar to the English one but sometimes it might sound like a V, especially when it occurs between two vowels. 

    Bonito (pretty)

    Abecedario (alphabet)



    Casa (house / home)

    Before e and i, this letter is pretty similar to a simple S (put the tip of your tongue between your teeth and you will sound like a real Spanish):

    Cena (dinner)



    China (China)



    Diente (tooth)



    Elefante (elephant)



    Falsificar (to counterfeit)



    Gorra (cap)

    Before e and i, it is more similar to a harsh H in English.

    Gente (people)



    This letter is generally silent:

    Hostal (guesthouse)

    In words adopted by other languages, this letter sounds like an aspirated H:

    Hawai (Hawaii)



    Iniciar (to begin)



    The letter jota always sounds like a harsh H (like G before e and i). It never sounds like the English J of Juliette. 

    Julio (July)



    Kaki (khaki)



    Lago (lake)


    [doble ele]

    This letter sounds like Y in English yellow:

    Lluvia (rain)



    Madre (mother)



    Noviembre (November)



    This letter sounds like NI in English onion

    Dueño (owner)



    Coco (coconut)



    Padre (father)



    The Spanish Q is always followed by the letter U:

    Quebrar (to break)



    Cara (face)

    At the beginning of the word, the Spanish R is way stronger than when it stands alone: 

    Rosa (rose / pink)


    [doble ere]

    Doubling the R make it stronger, indeed: 

    Perro (dog)



    Saber (to know)



    Tomar (to take)



    This letter sounds like OO in English cool

    Mucho (many)



    This letter sounds like the Spanish B (they are often mistaken one for another): 

    Vaso (glass)


    [uve doble]

    Wifi (Wi-Fi)



    This letter sounds like KS in English socks

    Sexto (sixth)

    In place and person names, it is close to the Spanish jota though: 

    xico (Mexico)


    [ i grieca]

    Yogur (yogurt)



    This letter is mostly pronounced like the English S: 

    Zapato (shoe)

    Next lessons

    1 Spanish accent marks Get familiar with the Spanish accent marks and do not miss any useful rules!