Comparative and superlative in Spanish
Comparative and superlative adjectives (adjetivos comparativos and superlativos) express the quality degree of the noun they modify.
As usual, these adjectives must agree in gender and number with the noun they modify.
3.similar / equal to
1. Esta falda es más ancha que ésa. (This skirt is larger than that one.)
2. Esta película es menos entretenida que esa. (This movie is less entertaining than that one.)
3. Soy tan alta como tú. (I am as tall as you.)
|Superlative||superior to||Él es el chico más guapo de la escuela. (He is the most handsome boy in the school.)|
Comparative forms may serve as:
- majority comparative (more...than)
- minority comparative (les...than)
- equality comparative (as...as)
1. Majority comparative (more...than)
To express comparison of inequality with "more", here is the sentence structure:
MÁS + adjective + QUE < more + adjective + than
La comida española es más rica que la comida alemana. (Spanish food is more delicious than German food.)
2. Minority comparative (less...than)
To express comparison of inequality with "less", here is the sentence structure:
MENOS + adjective + QUE < more + adjective + than
Rafael es menos celoso que su ex novio. (Rafael is less jealous than her ex boyfriend.)
3. Equality comparative (as...as)
To express comparison of equality, here is the sentence structure:
TAN + adjective + COMO < as + adjective + as
Este portátil es tan caro como lo de Lucía. (This laptop is as expensive as the one of Lucía.)
Superlatives express the quality of the noun they modify to its maximum degree.
Here are some common superlative structures:
- más + adjective + de / menos + adjective + de = the most / least + adjective + of
- muy + adjective / adjective + -ísimo = very + adjective
1. The most and the least
This type of structure expresses the maximum degree in comparison to others.
|Superlative structure||English equivalent||Examples|
|más + adjective + de||the most + adjective + of||
Éste es el día más importante de mi vida. (This is the most important day of my life.)
|menos + adjective + de||the least + adjective + of||
María es la menos inteligente de la clase. (María is the least clever of the school.)
2. Absolute superlative
This type of structure expresses the absolute superlative, which indicates the maximum adjective degree without comparing it to others.
|English||1st structure||Example||2nd structure||Example|
|very + adjective||muy + adjective||Estoy muy triste. (I am very sad.)||adjective + ísimo||Eres guapísimo. (You are very handsome.)|
In the second case, you need to add the superlative ending according to the gender and number of the noun they modify.
- Las mariposas son bellísimas. (Butterflies are very beautiful.)
- Javier es altísimo. (Javier is very tall.)
Spelling changes may occur when dropping certain adjective endings to add the superlative -ísimo.
|-co||-qu||rico - riquísimo (very rich, delicious)|
|-go||-gu||largo - larguísimo (very large)|
|-z||-c||veloz - velocísimo (very fast)|
Irregular comparatives and superlatives
el más grande
- Comparative: Tu habitación es mejor que la mía. (Your room is better than mine.)
- Superlative: Hoy es el mejor día de la semana. (Today is the best day of the week.)
To create the feminine and plural forms of the abovementioned nouns, have a look at the Gender and number of Spanish adjectives subpage!
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