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Pronouns (los pronombres) are words that are used instead of a noun or a noun phrase.
They are often used to refer to a noun that has already been mentioned.
There are six different types of Spanish pronouns:
Personal pronouns refer to a noun previously mentioned and remind your listener who is doing what, how, to whom, etc.
The Spanish personal pronouns are also divided into five other categories:
Subject pronouns identify who or what is performing the action indicated by the verb.
Ella es mi abuela. (She is my grandmother.)
Direct object pronouns replace a direct object, which is a noun that receives the action of a verb.
They generally precede verbs (both simple and compound ones).
Indirect object pronouns tells you to whom or for whom the action is done.
They are generally placed before verbs and they are used with a specific group of verbs (e.g decir algo a alguien, pedir algo a alguien, etc.).
Me dijo que no quería verme. (She told me that she did not want to see me.)
A direct object pronoun plus an indirect object pronoun turns into a double object pronoun.
Double object pronouns are generally placed before the conjugated form of the verb.
Me lo regaló mi amiga. (My friend gave it to me.)
When the indirect object pronouns le and les are followed by the direct object pronouns lo/la/los/las, they turn into SE.
Mira este vestido. Se lo compré. (Look at this dress. I bought it for her.)
Prepositional pronouns always follow prepositions, such as a (to) de (of), para (to, for) or con (with).
Prepositional pronouns replace the noun that comes immediately after a preposition.
Reflexive pronouns indicate that someone or something is performing an action on or for itself.
Reflexive pronouns are part of reflexive verbs and they are generally placed before them.
Cada mañana me ducho. (Every morning I shower myself.)
Spanish possessive pronouns indicate possession and replace a noun preceded by a possessive adjective.
Each possessive pronoun has four forms that must agree in gender and number with the noun they replace.
Su coche es más rápido que el mío. (His car is faster than mine.)
Spanish demonstrative pronouns are used to indicate a specific object (noun).
Each demonstrative pronoun has four forms that must agree in gender and number with the noun they replace.
To distinguish them from the demonstrative adjectives, the pronouns may have the accent mark.
Interrogative pronouns are exclusively used in questions and always carry the accent mark.
They are placed at the very beginning or very near the beginning of a sentence.
A relative pronoun always refers to a noun or a pronoun previously mentioned in the sentence.
|Relative pronoun||English translation||Example|
|que||that||El libro que te prestó María es mío. (The book that María gave to you is mine.)|
|quien||who, whom||Felipe, quien es médico, ha operado a mi abuelo. (Felipe, who is a doctor, has operated on my grandfather.)|
|el que/el cual||that, which, who, whom||Juan, el que trabaja en un banco, acaba de comprarse una casa en Ibiza. (Juan, who works in a bank, has just bought a house in Ibiza.)|
|lo que/lo cual||that which, which, what, whatever||No tengo bastante dinero para comprar ese coche, lo que me irrita. (I don't have enough money to buy that car, which irritates me.)|
|cuyo||whose||Ésa es la señora cuyo hijo se ha casado con la sobrina de Juan. (That is the lady whose son got married with Juan's niece.)|
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