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Gerund in Spanish (el gerundio)

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In Spanish, the verb form that ends in -ndo is called the gerundio. It is used in compound verb forms, such as estoy cantando. (I'm singing). This -ing form, in English can also be used as an adjective or a noun.


  • What are you doing?
  • The setting sun.
  • Swimming is fun.

Gerund formation in Spanish

To form the gerund of regular –ar verbs, take off the –ar ending of the infinitive and add –ando. To form the gerund of regular –er and –ir verbs replace the endings with –iendo.

Verbs in -arVerbs in -erVerbs in -ir

Ending replaced by



Ending replaced by


Ending replaced by 


hablar → hablandocomer → comiendovivir → viviendo
viajar → viajandobeber → bebiendosalir → saliendo


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Uses of the gerundio in Spanish

To form continuous tenses with estar

  • Estoy trabajando (I am working)
  • Estamos comiendo (We are eating)

To Express Ongoing Actions

Gerundios can be used with verbs like ir , seguir , andar  and venir , to emphasize the idea of an ongoing action.

  • Anda buscando su movil. (He is walking around looking for his phone)
  • Vas saliendo del estado de meditación. (You are gradually coming out of the meditation state)
  • Seguimos estudiando las candidaturas. (We keep on studying the application forms)
  • Vengo sintiendo una gran paz interior. (I've been feeling a great peace inside of me)

As Adverbs

Gerundios can function as adverbs, modifying the action of another verb in the same phrase.

  • Pasé el día leyendo. (I spent the day reading)
  • Cantando y bailando, se fueron de la fiesta. (Singing and dancing, they left the party)

Frequent use of verbs with gerund

Verb in SpanishVerb in EnglishExamples
estar + gerundto be doing something

Qué estás haciendo? (What are you doing?)

Estoy estudiando (I am studying)

empezar + gerundto begin doing somethingLa profesora empieza la clase pasando lista. (The teacher starts the lesson by doing the registration)
llevar + gerundto be doing something a period of timeCristina lleva 3 meses viviendo en Barcelona. (Cristina is living in Barcelona for 3 months now)
ir + gerundto start doing somethingÁlvaro va empezando a caminar. (Álvaro is gradually doing his first steps)
continuar/seguir + gerundto keep doing somethingPatricia sigue trabajando en Valencia (Patricia is still working in Valencia)
acabar/terminar + gerundto end up doing somethingTerminan graduandose en el colegio. (They end up graduating at school)

The gerund of irregular verbs

Some verbs have an irregular gerund form.

Highly irregular verbs

ser (to be)siendo
ir (to go)yendo
decir (to say)diciendo
ver (to see)viendo
poder (to be able to)pudiendo
dar (to give)dando
venir (to come)viniendo
dormir (to sleep)durmiendo
leer (to read)leyendo
oir (to hear)oyendo
traer (to bring)trayendo
caer (to fall)cayendo
morir (to die)muriendo

Verbs with vowel changes e→i  e→ie

All verbs with a vowel change from e to i or ie in the present also have a vowel change in the gerund.

  • pedir → pidiendo
  • seguir → siguiendo
  • reir → riendo

Verbs with -uir

For all the verbs ending in -uir, i becomes y.

  • destruir → destruyendo
  • construir → construyendo

yes You can practice the gerund form with the exercises. Good luck!



  1. Practice the gerund
  2. Do you know the gerund?
  3. More practice of the gerund

Practice the gerund

Do you know the gerund?

More practice of the gerund

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