In Spanish, the verb form that ends in -ndo is called the gerundio. It is used in compound verb forms, such as estoy cantando. (I'm singing). This -ing form, in English can also be used as an adjective or a noun.
To form the gerund of regular –ar verbs, take off the –ar ending of the infinitive and add –ando. To form the gerund of regular –er and –ir verbs replace the endings with –iendo.
|Verbs in -ar||Verbs in -er||Verbs in -ir|
Ending replaced by
Ending replaced by
Ending replaced by
|hablar → hablando||comer → comiendo||vivir → viviendo|
|viajar → viajando||beber → bebiendo||salir → saliendo|
Gerundios can be used with verbs like ir , seguir , andar and venir , to emphasize the idea of an ongoing action.
Gerundios can function as adverbs, modifying the action of another verb in the same phrase.
|Verb in Spanish||Verb in English||Examples|
|estar + gerund||to be doing something||
Qué estás haciendo? (What are you doing?)
Estoy estudiando (I am studying)
|empezar + gerund||to begin doing something||La profesora empieza la clase pasando lista. (The teacher starts the lesson by doing the registration)|
|llevar + gerund||to be doing something a period of time||Cristina lleva 3 meses viviendo en Barcelona. (Cristina is living in Barcelona for 3 months now)|
|ir + gerund||to start doing something||Álvaro va empezando a caminar. (Álvaro is gradually doing his first steps)|
|continuar/seguir + gerund||to keep doing something||Patricia sigue trabajando en Valencia (Patricia is still working in Valencia)|
|acabar/terminar + gerund||to end up doing something||Terminan graduandose en el colegio. (They end up graduating at school)|
Some verbs have an irregular gerund form.
|ser (to be)||siendo|
|ir (to go)||yendo|
|decir (to say)||diciendo|
|ver (to see)||viendo|
|poder (to be able to)||pudiendo|
|dar (to give)||dando|
|venir (to come)||viniendo|
|dormir (to sleep)||durmiendo|
|leer (to read)||leyendo|
|oir (to hear)||oyendo|
|traer (to bring)||trayendo|
|caer (to fall)||cayendo|
|morir (to die)||muriendo|
All verbs with a vowel change from e to i or ie in the present also have a vowel change in the gerund.
For all the verbs ending in -uir, i becomes y.
You can practice the gerund form with the exercises. Good luck!
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