Adjectives have different functions depending on the role they play with the noun they modify.
There are five different adjective categories:
- descriptive adjectives
- demonstrative adjectives
- possessive adjectives
- indefinite adjectives
- comparative and superlative adjectives
Placement of Spanish adjectives
Adjectives are generally placed after the noun they modify.
- Amberes es una ciudad interesante. (Antwerp is an interesting city.)
- Me gustan las tartas saladas. (I like salty cakes.)
Demonstrative, possessive and indefinite adjectives generally occur before the noun they modify.
- Demonstrative: Esta tarta está caliente todavía. (This cake is still hot.)
- Possessive: Su casa está en la esquina. (His/Her house is in the corner.)
- Indefinite: Algunos alumnos se han ido a casa ya. (Some students have already gone home.)
Gender and number of Spanish adjectives
All of them must agree in gender (masculine, feminine) and number (singular, plural) with the noun they modify.
- La gata de Lucía es blanca y negra. (Lucía's cat is black and white.)
- Tengo dos relojes dorados. (I have two golden watches.)
1. Descriptive adjectives
Descriptive adjectives describe the qualities of a noun.
El niño está triste. (The child is sad.)
2. Demonstrative adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives indicate the location of a noun.
- Cierra esta puerta. (Close this door.)
- Me gusta ese par de vaqueros. (I like that pair of jeans.)
- Abre aquella ventana. (Open that window over there.)
3. Possessive adjectives
Possessive adjectives express possession or ownership.
- Mi gato es naranja. (My cat is ginger.)
- Un amigo mío nació en Paris. (A friend of mine was born in paris.)
4. Indefinite adjectives
Indefinite adjectives indicate the indefinite idea of quantity and quality of nouns.
Quiero otra galleta. (I want another biscuit.)
5. Comparative and superlative adjectives
Comparative and superlative adjectives express the quality degree of nouns.
- Eres más alto que yo. (You are taller than me.)
- Lucas es menos inteligente que su hermano. (Lucas is less clever than his brother.)
- Soy tan baja como tú. (I am as short as you.)
- Marta es la más guapa de la escuela. (Marta is the most beautiful of the school.)
Using adjectives as nouns
To form nouns with adjectives, you need to add an article (definite or indefinite) before the adjective.
- ¿Cuáles guantes prefieres? Me gustan los blancos. (Which gloves do you prefer? I like the white ones.)
- Me gusta esta guitarra, pero lo malo es que es muy pesada. (I like this guitar, but the bad thing is that it is too heavy.)
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