• Spanish grammar
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  • 1 Spanish alphabet [0/1]
  • 2 Spanish articles [0/5]
  • 3 Spanish nouns [0/8]
  • 4 Spanish adjectives [0/17]
  • 5 Spanish numbers [0/6]
  • 6 Spanish pronouns [0/32]
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Flashcards (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronoun quiz - Type identification (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish practice quiz - Drag and drop the pronoun (Score -/-)Free
  • Spanish pronouns in Spanish practice quiz (Score -/-)Free
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  • 6.1 Spanish personal pronouns [0/15]
  • 6.2 Spanish reflexive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.3 Spanish possessive pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.4 Spanish demonstrative pronouns [0/2]
  • 6.5 Spanish interrogative pronouns [0/3]
  • 6.6 Spanish relative pronouns [0/3]
  • 7 Adverbs in Spanish [0/18]
  • 8 Spanish prepositions
  • 9 Spanish tenses and verb conjugation [0/21]
  • 9.1 Present tense in Spanish (el presente) [0/3]
  • 9.2 Past tenses in Spanish (el pasado) [0/12]
  • 9.3 Future tense in Spanish (el futuro) [0/6]
  • 10 Spanish verbs [0/5]
  • A relative pronoun (pronombre relativo) always refers to a noun or a pronoun previously mentioned in the sentence. 

    It is a link or connector between sentences or clauses. 

    Examples: 

    • Luca es el profesor que enseña italiano. (Luca is the professor who teaches Italian.)
    • Esta es la periodista, quien es la amiga de mi madre. (This is the journalist who is my mother's friend.)

    Relative pronoun list

    There are five different types of relative pronouns

    1. que
    2. quien
    3. el que/el cual
    4. lo que/lo cual
    5. cuyo

    1. Relative pronoun que

    "Que" is the equivalent of "that" and it is never omitted in Spanish. 

    It refers to people, animals, things, ideas or events in the singular or plural. 

    Function Example English 
    subject of the clause La mujer que acaba de irse es mi madre.  The woman who has just gone away is my mother. 
    object of the clause Te recomiendo al albañil que llamamos ayer.  I recommend to you the bricklayer whom we called yesterday.

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    2. Relative pronoun quien 

    The English pronouns "who" and "whom" are the equivalents of "quien" and the plural form "quienes"

    Quien is commonly used in the written language and it might replace "que" when referring to a person

    Use Example English
    subject of a verb Felipe, quien* acaba de casarse con mi tía, es periodista. Felipe, who has just got married with my aunt, is a journalist.
    object of a verb  Acabo de encontrar a Luis, a quien* llamé anoche.  I have just met Luis, whom I called yesterday. 

    * The clause introduced with quien or quienes is separated from the main clause with commas.

    3. Relative pronouns el que and el cual 

    "El que" and "el cual" correspond to "that", "which", "who" and "whom"

    Masculine singular Feminine singular Masculine plural Feminine plural
    el que la que los que  las que
    el cual la cual los cuales las cuales

    Examples: 

    • He hablado con Juan, el cual me dijo que tiene que mudarse a Madrid. (I have talked to Juan, who told me that he has to move to Madrid.)
    • Acabo de encontrar a María, la que es una amiga mía. (I have just met María, who is a friend of mine.)
    • Sara tiene dos faldas, las cuales están hechas a mano. (Sara has got two skirts, which are hand-made.)

    Uses

    Use Example English
    subject of the verb El autor de Cien años de soledad es Gabriel García Marquez, el cual escribió otras novelas.  The author of One hundred years of solitude is Gabriel García Marquez, who wrote other novels.
    object of the verb Saludamos a Hector, al que encontramos ayer.  We said hello to Hector, whom we met yesterday. 

    enlightened"Quien" and "el que" may be used as the indefinite subject of a verb and they correspond to "he who"

    Example: 

                                                      Quien espera, desespera.

    He who waits, loses hope: 

                                                      El que espera, desespera.

    4. Lo que in Spanish 

    "Lo que" and "lo cual" are neuter relative pronouns and they correspond to "that which", "which", "what" or "whatever"

    Use Example English
    referring to a statement, concept or idea previously mentioned Tengo que ir a casa de mis suegros, lo que me irrita.  I have to go to my parents-in-law' house, which irritates me.

    referring to a statement, concept or idea previously discussed

    Lo que te dije, no va a suceder.  What I told you is not going to happen. 

    5. Relative pronoun cuyo

    "Cuyo" means "whose" and it refers to people and things. 

    It precedes the noun it modifies and it must agree in gender and number with that noun. 

      Masculine Feminine
    Singular cuyo cuya
    Plural cuyos cuyas

    Examples: 

    • Ésta es la señora cuyo hijo se ha casado con Marisol. (This is the lady whose son has got married with Marisol.)
    • Éste es el periodista cuyos artículos leyeron en la conferencia de ayer. (This is the journalist whose articles were read at yesterday's lecture.)
    • ¿Tenéis algún amigo cuya novia es italiana? (Do you have any friend whose girlfriend is Italian?)
    • Ése es el hombre cuyas palabras me cambiaron la vida. (That is the man whose words changed my life.)

    Relative pronouns after prepositions

    When relative pronouns follow a preposition, they serve as object of a verb. 

    Relative pronoun Preposition Example

    el que

    el cual

    any Juan es un hombre en el cual se puede confiar. (Juan is a man whom you can trust.)
    que

    a

    de

    en

    con* 

    - Ése es el coche en que chocaron. (That is the car in which they crashed.)

    - Ésta es la mujer de que hablamos. (This is the woman about whom we talked.)

    quien any El hombre con quien se casó Lucía es de Santander. (The man whom Lucía married is from Santander.)

    * "Que" may follow the preposition "con" if it does not refer to a person

    Example: 

    Mencionaste un objetivo con el cual estoy de acuerdo. (You mentioned a target with which I agree.)