A noun is a word that expresses a person (erkek:boy), a thing (ev:home), an animal (köpek:dog), a place (İzmir), or an abstract concept (sevgi:love).
Order of adding suffixes
To express the plural of a noun, express a possession (me/her/yours/...), location, etc... suffixes are added to the noun.
If three suffixes are added to the same noun, they should be added in following order:
- Plural suffix
- Possessive suffix
- Other cases
|ev (house)||-ler||-imiz||-de||evlerimizde (in our houses)|
|amca (uncle)||-lar||-ın||-dan||amcalarından (from her uncles)|
The forms of the six possessive suffixes are shown in the table below:
|1st singular||-(i)m, -ım, -um, -üm...||my||kalemim (my pencil)|
|2nd singular||-(i)n, -ın, -un, -ün...||your||kalemin (your pencil)|
|3rd singular||-i(n), -ı ,-u, -ü...||his/her/its||kalemi (her pencil)|
|1st plural||-(i)miz, -iniz, -umuz, -unuz...||our||kalemimiz (our pencil)|
|2nd plural||-(i)niz, -ınız, -unuz, -ünüz...||your||kaleminiz (your pencil)|
|3rd plural||-leri(n), -ları(n)||their||kalemleri (their pencil)|
The case of a noun indicates how that noun relates to other sentence parts. Turkish has 5 case suffixes, as shown in the table below. You can find more information about the Turkish cases on the page about the Turkish cases.
|Case marker||The suffix||Example|
|Accusative||-(y)i, -yı, -yu, yü...||meyveyi (the fruit)|
|Dative||-(y)e, -ya, -e, -a||meyveye (to the fruit)|
|Locative||-de, -da, -te, -ta||meyvede (on the fruit)|
|Ablative||-den, -dan, -ten, -tan||meyveden (from the fruit)|
Turkish singular nouns
The singular nouns represent a single person, thing, place or concept.
- Çocuk (child), çiçek (flower), baba (father), okul (school), meyve (fruit), çanta (bag)...
- Çocuk oyun oynuyor. (The child is playing.)
- Şu çiçeğe bak! (Look at that flower!)
Turkish plural nouns
The plural nouns in Turkish are formed by adding the '-ler/-lar' suffixes to the noun according to the vowel harmony rules. When the last vowel of the noun is one of the following vowels ( -a ,- ı, -o, -u ), the '-lar' suffix is used and when the last vowel of the noun is one of the vowels (-e,- i, -ö, -ü ) the '-ler' suffix is used.
|Use (-ler/lar)||the last vowel|
|'-lar'||-a, -ı, -o, -u|
|'-ler'||-e, -i, -ö, -ü|
- Çocuklar (children), çiçekler (flowers), babalar (fathers), okullar (schools), meyveler (fruits), çantalar (bags)...
- Çocuklar oyun oynuyor. (The children are playing.)
- Şu çiçeklere bak! (Look at that flowers!)
Turkish common nouns
A common noun names any person, place or thing. Some common noun examples are:
- Organ and body part names: kafa (head), el (hand), akciğer (lungs)...
- Animal and plant names: köpek (dog), elma (apple), ceviz (nut)...
- Color names: yeşil (green), sarı (yellow), beyaz (white)...
- Relative names: hala (aunt), dede (grandfather), kız kardeş (sister)
Turkish proper nouns
A proper noun describes unique objects and people. All proper nouns begin with capital letters. Some proper noun examples are:
- Human names: Ali, Ayşe, John...
- Language names: İngilizce (English), Türkçe (Turkish), İspanyolca (Spanish)...
- Planets, countries, region names: Venüs (Venus), İtalya (Italy), Marmara bölgesi (Marmara region)...
Institution and organization names: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi (Boğaziçi University), Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Society)
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