• Turkish grammar
  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • A noun is a word that expresses a person (erkek:boy), a thing (ev:home), an animal (köpek:dog), a place (İzmir), or an abstract concept (sevgi:love). 

    Order of adding suffixes

    To express the plural of a noun, express a possession (me/her/yours/...), location, etc... suffixes are added to the noun.

    If three suffixes are added to the same noun, they should be added in following order:

    1. Plural suffix
    2. Possessive suffix
    3. Other cases
    Noun Plural Possessive Case Final vercion
    ev (house) -ler -imiz -de evlerimizde (in our houses)
    amca (uncle) -lar -ın -dan amcalarından (from her uncles)


    Possessive marking

    The forms of the six possessive suffixes are shown in the table below:

    Person The suffix Translation Example
    1st singular -(i)m, -ım, -um, -üm... my kalemim (my pencil)
    2nd singular -(i)n, -ın, -un, -ün... your kalemin (your pencil)
    3rd singular -i(n), -ı ,-u, -ü... his/her/its kalemi (her pencil)
    1st plural -(i)miz, -iniz, -umuz, -unuz... our kalemimiz (our pencil)
    2nd plural -(i)niz, -ınız, -unuz, -ünüz... your kaleminiz (your pencil)
    3rd plural -leri(n), -ları(n) their kalemleri (their pencil)


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    Case marking

    The case of a noun indicates how that noun relates to other sentence parts. Turkish has 5 case suffixes, as shown in the table below. You can find more information about the Turkish cases on the page about the Turkish cases.

    Case marker The suffix Example
    Nominative - meyve (fruit)
    Accusative -(y)i, -yı, -yu, yü... meyveyi (the fruit)
    Dative -(y)e, -ya, -e, -a meyveye (to the fruit)
    Locative -de, -da, -te, -ta meyvede (on the fruit)
    Ablative -den, -dan, -ten, -tan meyveden (from the fruit)


    Turkish singular nouns

    The singular nouns represent a single person, thing, place or concept. 


    • Çocuk (child), çiçek (flower), baba (father), okul (school), meyve (fruit), çanta (bag)...
    • Çocuk oyun oynuyor. (The child is playing.)
    • Şu çiçeğe bak! (Look at that flower!)

    Turkish plural nouns

    The plural nouns in Turkish are formed by adding the '-ler/-lar' suffixes to the noun according to the vowel harmony rules. When the last vowel of the noun is one of the following vowels ( -a ,- ı, -o, -u ), the '-lar' suffix is used and when the last vowel of the noun is one of the vowels (-e,- i, -ö, -ü ) the '-ler' suffix is used. 

    Use (-ler/lar) the last vowel
    '-lar' -a, -ı, -o, -u
    '-ler' -e, -i, -ö, -ü



    • Çocuklar (children), çiçekler (flowers), babalar (fathers), okullar (schools), meyveler (fruits), çantalar (bags)...
    • Çocuklar oyun oynuyor. (The children are playing.)
    • Şu çiçeklere bak! (Look at that flowers!)

    Turkish common nouns

    A common noun names any person, place or thing. Some common noun examples are:

    • Organ and body part names: kafa (head), el (hand), akciğer (lungs)...
    • Animal and plant names: köpek (dog), elma (apple), ceviz (nut)...
    • Color names: yeşil (green), sarı (yellow), beyaz (white)...
    • Relative names: hala (aunt), dede (grandfather), kız kardeş (sister)

    Turkish proper nouns

    A proper noun describes unique objects and people. All proper nouns begin with capital letters. Some proper noun examples are:

    • Human names: Ali, Ayşe, John...
    • Language names: İngilizce (English), Türkçe (Turkish), İspanyolca (Spanish)...
    • Planets, countries, region names: Venüs (Venus), İtalya (Italy), Marmara bölgesi (Marmara region)...
    • Institution and organization names: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi (Boğaziçi University), Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Society)

    Next lessons

    1 Plural in Turkish Learn plural in Turkish
    2 Capital letters in Turkish Learn how to use the capital letters in Turkish