Passive verbs in Turkish
The passive voice is used to emphasize the action and the object of a sentence. The passive voice is formed by adding specific suffixes.
The passive suffixes are:
- -n: is used after the verbs ending in vowels
- -in: is used after the verbs ending in 'l'
- -il : is used in all other cases
|Passive suffixes||Infinitive||Passive infinitive|
ertelemek (to delay)
hazırlamak (to prepare)
ertelenmek (to be delayed)
hazırlanmak (to be prepared)
|-in, -ın, -ün, -un|
almak (to buy)
bilmek (to know)
alınmak (to be bought)
bilinmek (to be known)
|-il, -ıl, -ül, -ul|
açmak (to open)
kesmek (to cut)
açılmak (to be opened)
kesilmek (to be cut)
- 1.How to form the passive verb
- 1.1. Verbs ending in vowels: add '-n'
- 1.1.1.Conjugated examples
- 1.2.Verbs ending in '-l' : add ''-ın, -in, -un, -ün''
- 1.2.1.Conjugated examples
- 1.3.All other cases: add '-ıl, -il, -ul, -ül'
- 1.3.1.Conjugated examples
- 2.The agent in the passive
- 3.1.Multiple choice exercise on the passive verbs in Turkish
- 3.2.Fill in the blanks exercise about the passive verbs
How to form the passive verb
1. Verbs ending in vowels: add '-n'
When the verb root ends with a vowel, the letter '-n' is added after the verb root to convert the verb into the passive voice.
Verb root + '-n' + '-mek/mak'
|Active infinitive||Passive voice infinitive|
|izlemek (to watch)||izlenmek (to be watched)|
|istemek (to want)||istenmek (to be wanted)|
- Dün film izlendi. (The movie was watched yesterday.)
- Marketten iki elma isteniyor. (Two apples are wanted from the market.)
2. Verbs ending in '-l' : add ''-ın, -in, -un, -ün''
When the verb root ends with the letter '-l', one of the suffixes '-ın, -in, -un, -ün' is added after the verb root to convert the verb into the passive voice.
Verb root + 'ın/in/un/ün' + 'mek/mak'
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a/ı||e/i||o/u||ö/ü|
|Add the suffix ->||-ın||-in||-un||-ün|
|Active voice||Passive voice|
|silmek (to erase)||silinmek (to be erased)|
|bulmak (to find)||bulunmak (to be found)|
- Yazı silindi. (The text was erased.)
- Senin çantan bulundu. (Your bag was found.)
3. All other cases: add '-ıl, -il, -ul, -ül'
In all other cases one of the suffixes '-ıl, -il, -ul, -ül' is added after the verb root according to the verb root's last vowel.
Verb root + '-ıl, -il, -ul, -ül' + 'mek/mak'
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a/ı||e/i||o/ö||u/ü|
|Add the suffix ->||-ıl||-il||-ul||-ül|
|Active voice||Passsive voice|
|unutmak (to forget)||unutulmak (to be forgotten)|
|görmek (to see)||görülmek (to be seen)|
- Defter otobüste unutuldu. (The notebook was forgotten on the bus.)
- Hırsız görüldü. (The thief was seen.)
The agent in the passive
The person that performs the action of a passivized verb (agent) is expressed by the postposition 'tarafından' (by) .
- Pencere Ece tarafından kapatıldı. (The window was closed by Ece.)
- Mektup Kemal tarafından yazıldı. (The letter is written by Kemal.)
When the agent is a personal pronoun the postposition 'tarafından' takes different endings.
|The personal pronouns in passive voice|
|(benim) tarafımdan||by me|
|(senin) tarafından||by you|
|(onun) tarafından||by he/she/it|
|(bizim) tarafımızdan||by us|
|(sizin) tarafınızdan||by you|
|(onların) tarafından||by them|
- Kapı (benim) tarafımdan kapatıldı. -> The door was closed by me.
- Kapı (senin) tarafından kapatıldı. -> The door was closed by you.
- Kapı (onun) tarafından kapatıldı. -> The door was closed by he/she/it.
- Kapı (bizim) tarafımızdan kapatıldı. -> The door was closed by us.
- Kapı (sizin) tarafınızdan kapatıldı. -> The door was closed by you.
- Kapı (onların) tarafından kapatıldı. ->The door was closed by them.
- Multiple choice exercise on the passive verbs in Turkish
- Fill in the blanks exercise about the passive verbs
Multiple choice exercise on the passive verbs in Turkish
Fill in the blanks exercise about the passive verbs
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