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The past tense shows completed events in the past. The past tense is called 'geçmiş zaman' in Turkish. There are two suffixes that are used in the past tense in Turkish:
The difference between those suffixes is depending on whether the speaker witnessed the event or not.
The definite past tense is used when you have personal knowledge or directly experienced something. This tense shows events that are witnessed by the speaker. The suffix '-di' is used and can be formed as ''-dı -du, -dü, -ti, -tı -tu, -tü'' according to the vowel harmony rules.
The 3 forms of the definite past tense are:
According to the verb's last vowel, one of the following suffixes "-dı, -di, -du, -dü" are added to the verb root and then the personal suffix is added.
Verb root + -di (dı/du/dü) + personal suffix
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a/ı||e/i||o/ö||u/ü|
|Add this suffix ->||-dı||-di||-du||-dü|
If the last letter of the verb root is one of "ç, f, h, k, s, ş, t, p", the letter "d" is replaced with a "t". Then the suffixes become "-tı, -ti, -tu, -tü".
|Seçmek (to choose)|
|Ben seçtim.||I chose.|
|Sen seçtin.||You chose.|
|O seçti.||He/she/it chose.|
|Biz seçtik.||We chose.|
|Siz seçtiniz.||You chose.|
|Onlar seçtiler.||They chose.|
The negative suffix '-madı' or '-medi' is added to the verb root according to the vowel harmony rules and then the personal suffix is added.
Verb root + (-medi/-madı) + personal suffix
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a, ı, o, u||e, i, ö, ü|
|Add this suffix->||-madı||-medi|
According to the verb's last vowel, one of the "-mı, -mi, -mu, -mü" are added after the verb and they are always written as a seperate word.
Verb root + -di (dı/du/dü)+ personal suffix + mi (mı/mu/mü)
The indefinite past tense is used for reporting an event that somebody did not witness in person. The suffix '-miş' is used and can be formed as ''-muş, -mış, -müş'' according to the vowel harmony rules.
The 3 forms of the indefinite past tense are:
According to the verb's last vowel, one of the following suffixes "-mış, -miş, -muş, -müş" is added to the verb root and then the personal suffx is added.
Verb root + -miş (mış/muş/müş) + personal suffix
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a/ı||e/i||o/u||ö/ü|
|Add this suffix ->||-mış||-miş||-muş||-müş|
The negative suffix '-mamış' or '-memiş' is added to the verb root according to the vowel harmony rules and then the personal suffix is added.
Verb root + -memiş/-mamış + personal suffix
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||a, ı, o, u||e, i, ö, ü|
|Add this suffix ->||-mamış||-memiş|
According to the verb's last vowel, one of the "-mış mı-/ -miş mi/ -muş mu/ -müş mü" is added after the verb.
Verb root + -miş mi (muş mu...) + personal suffix
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