Negatives in Turkish
A negative sentence defines that something is incorrect. Different words are used to express the negative in Turkish.
1. Değil 'not'
The word 'değil' is used to make a noun or adjective negative. A different suffix is added to the word 'değil' for each personal pronoun.
|Ben ... değilim.||I am not...||Ben hasta değilim. (I am not ill.)|
|Sen ... değilsin.||You are not...||Sen hasta değilsin. (You are not ill.)|
|O ...değil.||He/she/it is not...||O hasta değil. (He/she/it is not ill.)|
|Biz ... değiliz.||We are not...||Biz hasta değiliz. (We are not ill.)|
|Siz ... değilsiniz.||You are not...||Siz hasta değilsiniz. (You are not ill.)|
|Onlar ... değiller.||They are not...||Onlar hasta değiller. (They are not ill.)|
2. Var/yok 'there is/ there is not'
The words 'var' and 'yok' are used to explain the presence and absence of things.
|Var (there is/are)||Yok (there isn't/aren't)|
|İçeride bir kedi var. (There is a cat inside.)||İçeride bir kedi yok. (There isn't a cat inside.)|
|Burada kitaplar var. (There are books here.)||Burada kitaplar yok. (There aren't books here.)|
The words 'var/yok' are also used to express the verb 'have/not have'.
|Var (have/has)||Yok (not have/ not has)|
|İki kedim var. (I have two cats.)||İki kedim yok. (I don't have two cats.)|
|Onun evi var. (She has a house.)||Onun evi yok. (She doesn't have a house.)|
The word 'değil' can be used as 'yok' in the sentences that the subject is definite.
- Ayşe içeride değil. = Ayşe içeride yok. (Ayşe is not inside.)
- Ahmet okulda değil. = Ahmet okulda yok. (Ahmet is not in school.)
3. -me/-ma (negatives of verbs)
The negative form of verbs are formed by adding the suffix -me or -ma after the verb root according to the last vowel of the verb root.
|Last vowel of the verb root ->||-a, -ı, -o, -u||-e, -i, -ö, -ü|
|Add the suffix ->||-ma||-me|
- okumak (to read): Ben kitap okumadım. -> I didn't read the book.
- yüzmek (to swim): Biz denizde yüzmedik. -> We didn't swim in the sea.
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