• Turkish grammar
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  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • Verbs in Turkish

    In Turkish there are two kinds of verbs:

           1. Transitive verbs: take an object  (anla -understand, sev -love, bul -find, yap -make...)

    • Ben seni anlıyorum. -> I understand you. (Seni:you is an object)
    • Anahtarı buldular. -> They found the key. (Anahtarı:the key is an object)

           2. Intransitive verbs: take no object (gül -laugh, uyu -sleep, öl -die...)

    • Onlar gülmedi. -> They didn't laugh.
    • Kedi uyuyor. ->The cat is sleeping.

    Infinitive in Turkish

    The infinitive is the mood of the verb without any conjugation. In order to make a the Turkish infinitive, the suffix -mak or -mek is added to the verb root according to the last vowel of the verb root. 

    • ağlamak (to cry), gülmek (to laugh), okumak (to read), görmek (to see)...

    Turkish verb conjugation and tenses

    There are 4 main tenses in the Turkish language:

    • The present continuous tense (şimdiki zaman)
    • The present simple tense (geniş zaman )
    • The past tense (geçmiş zaman)
    • The future tense (gelecek zaman) 

     

    Verb's suffixes

    Verbs are conjugated according to suffixes. This makes the conjugation different than English or other Roman and Latin languages.

    The different suffixes are:

    • Personal suffixes (indicate the personal pronoun like "me, you, he,...")
    • Tense suffixes: present, past or future tense
    • Voice suffixes: causative, passive, reflexive, reciprocal

    Causative verbs in Turkish

    Causative verbs are verbs that explain how a person or a thing makes something happen (verbs with an obligated indirect object like to make something, to get something,...). In Turkish, a causative verb is formed by adding a specific suffix to the verb.

    Examples

    • pişirmek (to cook something)
    • güldürmek (to make someone laugh)
    • anlatmak (to make someone understand)

    Passive verbs in Turkish

    The passive voice is used  to emphasize the action and the object of a sentence. The passive voice is formed by adding specific suffixes. The passive suffixes are: ''-n, -in, -il''

    Examples

    • hazırlanmak (to be prepared)
    • okunmak (to be read)
    • gezilmek (to be visited) 

    Reflexive verbs in Turkish

    In English, the words myself, oneself,... are used in combination with reflexive verbs. In Turkish, the suffix -(i)n shows that the subject and the object are the same in a sentence. The reflexive mood is only used with certain verbs.

    Examples

    • giyinmek (to dress oneself)
    • kurulanmak (to dry oneself)
    • gezinmek (to stroll oneself)

    Reciprocal verbs in Turkish

    The reciprocal verb gives a meaning of an action that is done together with another person. In English one would say `one another`. In Turkish, the suffix -(i)ş is used to provide this meaning. The reciprocal mood can only be used with certain verbs.

    Examples

    • öpüşmek (to kiss each other)
    • araşmak (to call each other)
    • bulmak (to meet up with someone)

     

    Next lessons

    1 Turkish infinitive Learn Turkish verbs
    2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) jkdshwhkjjje
    3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses Learn Turkish conjugation and tenses!
    4 Causative verbs in Turkish Learn the causative verbs
    5 Passive verbs in Turkish Learn the passive verbs
    6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish Learn the reflexive verbs in Turkish
    7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish Learn the reciprocal verbs in Turkish
    8 Modal verbs in Turkish Learn the modal verbs in Turkish
    9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish Learn all the Turkish auxiliary verbs (etmek, olmak)
    10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish Learn the subjunctive verbs in Turkish