• Turkish grammar
  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • Turkish word order

    The word order in Turkish is flexible. One sentence can be written in different word orders.

    Flexible word order

    In Turkish, one sentence can be written in different word orders. All of the sentences below have the same meaning but the placement of the stress is different.  The first sentence shows the neutral word order (subject-object-verb) and the stress is on ‘eve’.

     Example: ‘Melis eve geldi'. (Melis came home):

    • Melis eve geldi. (Melis- home -came)
    • Melis geldi eve. (Melis -came -home)
    • Eve Melis geldi. (Home – Melis – came)
    • Eve geldi Melis. (Home – came -Melis)
    • Geldi Melis eve. (Came- Melis – home)
    • Geldi eve Melis. (Came – home -Melis)


    Neutral word order

    The most common word order that is used in the Turkish sentences is: 'Subject - Object - Verb' Generally, the verb takes a place at the end, but it can be anywhere in the sentence.

    enlightenedSubject + Object + Verb

    1. Subject: who performs the action
    2. Object: words that show a place, time etc.
    3. Verb: with the personal and tense suffixes

    Example table

    Subject Object Verb Turkish sentence with neutral word order Translation
    Ben (I am) kitap (a book) okuyorum (reading) Ben kitap okuyorum. I am reading a book.
    Sen (You) bugün (today)kahve (coffee) içmedin (didn't drink) Sen bugün kahve içmedin. You didn't drink coffee today.


    Omission of personal pronouns

    The Turkish personal pronouns are generally omitted because the person is mentioned in the adjective declension or the verb conjugation.


    • Biz mutluyuz. = Mutluyuz. (We are happy.)
    • Sen beni arıyorsun. = Beni arıyorsun. (You are calling me.)

    The position of adverbs

    1. Adverbs of manner

    Adverbs of manner are the words that show how the act is done and usually placed before the verb.


    • Sen hızlı koşuyorsun. (You are running fast.)
    • Soruları zekice cevapladı. (He answered the questions cleverly.)

    2. Adverbs of place

    Adverbs of place are generally placed before the verb. Unlike adverbs of manner, adverbs of place can take place in different parts of a sentence.


    • Annem içeride bekliyor. (My mother is waiting inside.)
    • İçeride annem bekliyor. (My mother is waiting inside.)

    3.Adverbs of time

     Adverbs of time usually placed at the beginning if the subject does not used in the sentence.


    • (Ben) Her sabah süt içiyorum. (I am drinking milk every morning.)
    • (O) Yarın İzmir'e gidecek. (She will go to İzmir tomorrow.)


    Fill in the blanks exercise on the Turkish word order