An adjective is a word that is used in front of the nouns for describe them such as color, shape, property, number and so on.
- 1.General rules on the use of adjectives in Turkish
- 2.List of Turkish adjectives
- 3.Position of adjectives in Turkish
- 4.Indefinite article with adjectives
- 5.Nouns used as adjectives
- 5.1.Nouns indicating gender
- 5.2.Nouns indicating occupation
- 5.3.Nouns indicating a nationality
- 6.Degrees of adjectives
General rules on the use of adjectives in Turkish
- The adjective is always stable and never conjugated.
- There is no masculine, feminine and neuter form of the adjectives in the Turkish language.
- Adjectives never get plural suffixes. (ler/lar)
- Adjectives come before the noun.
- Adjectives can be formed from both nouns or verbs as in English.
List of Turkish adjectives
The most common adjectives in the Turkish language and the opposite forms of the adjectives are indicated below.
|Turkish||English||Turkish opposite||English opposite|
- Yaşlı kadın yorgun gözüküyor. (The old woman looks tired.)
- Küçük ev bize daha uygun. (The small house is more suitable for us.)
- Yeni oda nasıl? (How is the new room?)
- Kitapta zor sorular var. (There are difficult questions in the book.)
Position of adjectives in Turkish
Turkish adjectives are always placed before the noun. Unlike the English language, there is no specific order in terms of the position of the adjectives before the noun.
- the red old car ≠ the old red car
- kırmızı eski araba = eski kırmızı araba
Indefinite article with adjectives
The word 'bir' is used as the number ‘one’ and as the indefinite article ‘a’ or ‘an.’ When the indefinite article and one or more adjectives modify one noun, the adjective comes first, and the indefinite article follows it.
|bir kedi||a cat/one cat|
|küçük kedi||(the) little cat|
|çok küçük bir kedi||a very little cat|
|küçük ve güzel bir kedi||a little and pretty cat|
Nouns used as adjectives
Specific types of nouns are also used as adjectives:
1. Nouns indicating gender
Nouns that indicate the gender can be used as an adjective.
- Erkek asistan çok mutlu. (The male assistant is very happy.)
- Kadın öğretmen sınıfa gelmedi. (The female teacher didn't come to class.)
2. Nouns indicating occupation
Nouns that indicate the occupation or person of a certain profession can be used as an adjective.
- Ressam kız çok geç kaldı. (The girl who is a painter is late.)
- Gazeteci adam nerede? (Where is the man who is journalist?)
3. Nouns indicating a nationality
Nouns that indicate a person of a nationality can be used as an adjective.
- Bunu İngiliz ressam yaptı. (The English painter did this.)
- Türk kadınlar bunu bilmiyor. (Turkish women doesn't know this.)
Degrees of adjectives
Comparatives and superlatives are used for indicating the degrees of adjectives.
The adverb 'daha' (more) is used before the adjective to show comparative of it.
- Bu çanta daha ağır. (This bag is heavier.)
- Arkadaşım daha çalışkan. (My friend is more hardworking.)
The adverb 'daha az' (less) is used before the adjective for the expression of something less.
- Bu çanta daha az ağır. (This bag is less heavy.)
- Arkadaşım daha az çalışkan. (My friend is less hardworking.)
The adverb 'en' (most) is used before the adjective to show the highest degree of the quality.
- Gördüğüm en zeki insan. (She is the most clever person ı've ever seen.)
- Sınıfın en hızlısı kim? (Who is the fastest in the class?)
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