• Turkish grammar
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  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • An adjective is a word that is used in front of the nouns for describe them such as color, shape, property, number and so on.

    General rules on the use of adjectives in Turkish

    1. The adjective is always stable and never conjugated.
    2. There is no masculine, feminine and neuter form of the adjectives in the Turkish language.
    3. Adjectives never get plural suffixes. (ler/lar) 
    4. Adjectives come before the noun.
    5. Adjectives can be formed from both nouns or verbs as in English.

    List of Turkish adjectives

    The most common adjectives in the Turkish language and the opposite forms of the adjectives are indicated below.

    Turkish English Turkish opposite English opposite
    güzel beautiful çirkin ugly
    büyük big küçük small
    ucuz  cheap pahalı expensive
    iyi good kötü bad
    kolay easy zor difficult
    ağır heavy hafif light
    genç young yaşlı old
    yavaş slow hızlı quick
    eski old yeni new
    kalın thick ince thin
    zengin rich fakir poor
    sıcak hot soğuk cold
    uzun long kısa short

     

    Examples

    • Yaşlı kadın yorgun gözüküyor. (The old woman looks tired.)
    • Küçük ev bize daha uygun. (The small house is more suitable for us.)
    • Yeni oda nasıl? (How is the new room?)
    • Kitapta zor sorular var. (There are difficult questions in the book.)

     

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    Position of adjectives in Turkish

    Turkish adjectives are always placed before the noun. Unlike the English language, there is no specific order in terms of the position of the adjectives before the noun. 

    Example:

    • the red old caryes ≠ the old red car no  
    • kırmızı eski arabayes = eski kırmızı araba yes

    Indefinite article with adjectives

    The word 'bir' is used as the number ‘one’ and as the indefinite article ‘a’ or ‘an.’ When the indefinite article and one or more adjectives modify one noun, the adjective comes first, and the indefinite article follows it.

    Example:

    Turkish English
    bir kedi a cat/one cat
    küçük kedi (the) little cat
    çok küçük bir kedi a very little cat
    küçük ve güzel bir kedi a little and pretty cat

     

    Nouns used as adjectives

    Specific types of nouns are also used as adjectives:

    1. Nouns indicating gender

    Nouns that indicate the gender can be used as an adjective.

    Examples:

    • Erkek asistan çok mutlu. (The male assistant is very happy.)
    • Kadın öğretmen sınıfa gelmedi. (The female teacher didn't come to class.)

    2. Nouns indicating occupation

    Nouns that indicate the occupation or person of a certain profession can be used as an adjective.

    Examples:

    • Ressam kız çok geç kaldı. (The girl who is a painter is late.)
    • Gazeteci adam nerede? (Where is the man who is journalist?)

    3. Nouns indicating a nationality

    Nouns that indicate a person of a nationality can be used as an adjective.

    Examples:

    • Bunu İngiliz ressam yaptı. (The English painter did this.)
    • Türk kadınlar bunu bilmiyor. (Turkish women doesn't know this.)

    Degrees of adjectives

    Comparatives and superlatives are used for indicating the degrees of adjectives.

    Comparatives

    The adverb 'daha' (more) is used before the adjective to show comparative of it.

    Examples

    • Bu çanta daha ağır. (This bag is heavier.)
    • Arkadaşım daha çalışkan. (My friend is more hardworking.)

    enlightenedThe adverb 'daha az' (less) is used before the adjective for the expression of something less.

    • Bu çanta daha az ağır. (This bag is less heavy.)
    • Arkadaşım daha az çalışkan. (My friend is less hardworking.)

    Superlatives

    The adverb 'en' (most) is used before the adjective to show the highest degree of the quality.

    Examples

    • Gördüğüm en zeki insan. (She is the most clever person ı've ever seen.)
    • Sınıfın en hızlısı kim? (Who is the fastest in the class?)