Unlike in English, Turkish words are pronounced as written. The pronunciation of the Turkish characters in the alphabet is mostly similar to the characters in English. So, pronunciation in Turkish is simpler than in English.
|Word||Pronunciation of the first letter|
|araba (car)||as the a in 'park'|
|bebek (baby)||as the b in 'bank'|
|cep (pocket)||as the j in 'jam'|
|çikolata (chocolate)||as the ch in 'cheap'|
|doğru (true)||as the d in 'dangerous'|
|ekmek (bread)||as the e in 'enjoy'|
|farklı (different)||as the f in 'film'|
|görmek (to see)||as the g in 'got'|
|hece (syllable)||as the h in 'hush'|
|ıslak (wet)||as the ı in 'cousin'|
|ilişki (relationship)||as the i in 'sit'|
|japon (japanese)||as the s in 'measure'|
|köpek (dog)||as the k in 'keep'|
|lamba (lamp)||as the l in 'land'|
|masal (fairytale)||as the m in 'make'|
|neden (reason)||as the n in 'normal'|
|oda (room)||as the o in 'owen'|
|örtü (blanket)||as the i in 'dirty'|
|pilav (rice)||as the p in 'pink'|
|renk (colour)||as the r in 'ride'|
|sevgi (love)||as the s in 'some'|
|şans (chance)||as the sh in 'shoe'|
|top (ball)||as the t in 'task'|
|uçmak (to fly)||as the u in 'put'|
|ümit (hope)||as the ü in 'über'|
|vahşi (wild)||as the w in 'when'|
|yoğurt (yoghurt)||as the y in 'young'|
|zor (difficult)||as the s in 'as'|
The pronunciation of double consonants and single ones are different. Double consonants are pronounced with a delayed release and has the effect of a long sound. The pronunciation can change the meaning of a word.
|Single consonant||Double consonants|
|beli (his/her waist)||belli (obvious)|
|eli (his/her hand)||elli (fifty)|
|atın (your horse)||attın (you threw)|
|yeti (faculty)||yetti (enough)|
According to the place of the stress, words can change their meaning in the sentence. Placing the stress in the correct position in a word is very important. General rules for stress placement in Turkish words are as follows:
In most cases the last syllable is stressed.
Exception: words that don't have final stress:
The stress moves to the last suffix, when the words that has the final stress gets a suffix.
When the word ends on one of the unstressed suffixes (-ce, -dir, -me, -madan, -se, -ken...), then the stress takes part before that suffix.
The Turkish alphabet consists of eight vowels and these are: ''-a, -e, -ı, -i, -o, -ö, -u, -ü'' This letters are divided into two groups:
|Back vowels||-a, -ı, -o, -u|
|Front vowels||-e, -i, -ö, -ü|
When the word's first syllable includes one of the back/front vowels, the folowing syllables should continue with the back/front vowel too.
Examples with back vowels: yatak (bed), kapı (door), dudak (lip), burun (nose)
Examples with front vowels: çiçek (flower), böcek (bug), üzgün (sad), yemek (food)
There are however exceptions:
There are two plural suffixes in Turkish: -ler, -lar. When the last vowel of the noun is one of the following vowels ( -a ,- ı, -o, -u ), the '-lar' suffix is used and when the last vowel of the noun is one of the vowels (-e,- i, -ö, -ü ) the '-ler' suffix is used.
|Use (-ler/-lar)||the last vowel|
|'-lar'||-a, -ı, -o, -u|
|'-ler'||-e, -i, -ö, -ü|
Examples with the '-lar' suffix
Examples with the '-ler' suffix
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