• Turkish grammar
  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • Unlike in English, Turkish words are pronounced as written. The pronunciation of the Turkish characters in the alphabet is mostly similar to the characters in English. So, pronunciation in Turkish is simpler than in English.

    Pronunciation of the letters

    Word Pronunciation of the first letter
    araba (car) as the a in 'park'
    bebek (baby) as the b in 'bank'
    cep (pocket) as the j in 'jam'
    çikolata (chocolate) as the ch in 'cheap'
    doğru (true) as the d in 'dangerous'
    ekmek (bread) as the e in 'enjoy'
    farklı (different) as the f in 'film'
    görmek (to see) as the g in 'got'
    hece (syllable) as the h in 'hush'
    ıslak (wet) as the ı in 'cousin'
    ilişki (relationship) as the i in 'sit'
    japon (japanese) as the s in 'measure'
    köpek (dog) as the k in 'keep'
    lamba (lamp) as the l in 'land'
    masal (fairytale) as the m in 'make'
    neden (reason) as the n in 'normal'
    oda (room) as the o in 'owen'
    örtü (blanket) as the i in 'dirty'
    pilav (rice) as the p in 'pink'
    renk (colour) as the r in 'ride'
    sevgi (love) as the s in 'some'
    şans (chance) as the sh in 'shoe'
    top (ball) as the t in 'task'
    uçmak (to fly) as the u in 'put'
    ümit (hope) as the ü in 'über'
    vahşi (wild) as the w in 'when'
    yoğurt (yoghurt) as the y in 'young'
    zor (difficult) as the s in 'as'

    Double consonants

    The pronunciation of double consonants and single ones are different. Double consonants are pronounced with a delayed release and has the effect of a long sound. The pronunciation can change the meaning of a word.

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    Example table

    Single consonant Double consonants
    beli (his/her waist) belli (obvious)
    eli (his/her hand) elli (fifty)
    atın (your horse) attın (you threw)
    yeti (faculty) yetti (enough)

    Word stress rules

    According to the place of the stress, words can change their meaning in the sentence. Placing the stress in the correct position in a word is very important. General rules for stress placement in Turkish words are as follows:

    1. The last syllable

    In most cases the last syllable is stressed.


    • sa (short)
    • kalabalık (crowded)
    • çekingen (shy)
    • kadın (woman)

        enlightened  Exception: words that don't have final stress:

    • some place names: Özbekistan (Uzbekistan), Londra (London)
    • some words which are foreign origin: banka (bank), radyo (radio)
    • some adverbs: yarın (tomorrow), hemen (immediately)

    2. Stress move to the last suffix

    The stress moves to the last suffix, when the words that has the final stress gets a suffix.


    • pencere (window)
    • pencereler (windows)
    • pencerelerde (at the windows)
    • pencerem (my window)
    • pencerelerimin (of my windows)

    3.  Unstressed suffixes

     When the word ends on one of the unstressed suffixes (-ce, -dir, -me, -madan, -se, -ken...), then the stress takes part before that suffix.


    • Sessizce bekledim. I waited quitely.
    • Keki yapmadan gitme. Don't go before making the cake.
    • Okuldadır. He must be at school.
    • Bugün eve gitmedi. She didn't go home today.

    The vowel harmony in Turkish

    The Turkish alphabet consists of eight vowels and these are: ''-a, -e, -ı, -i, -o, -ö, -u, -ü'' This letters are divided into two groups:

    Back vowels -a, -ı, -o, -u
    Front vowels -e, -i, -ö, -ü

    When the word's first syllable includes one of the back/front vowels, the folowing syllables should continue with the back/front vowel too.

    Examples with back vowels: yatak (bed), kapı (door), dudak (lip), burun (nose)

    Examples with front vowels: çiçek (flower), böcek (bug), üzgün (sad), yemek (food)

    enlightened There are however exceptions:

    1. anne (mother)
    2.  tiyatro (theatre)
    3. badem (almond)
    4. kahve (coffee)
    5. hangi (which)
    6. ...

    Vowel harmony applied in the plural suffixes

    There are two plural suffixes in Turkish: -ler, -lar. When the last vowel of the noun is one of the following vowels ( -a ,- ı, -o, -u ), the '-lar' suffix is used and when the last vowel of the noun is one of the vowels (-e,- i, -ö, -ü ) the '-ler' suffix is used. 

    Use (-ler/-lar) the last vowel
    '-lar' -a, -ı, -o, -u
    '-ler' -e, -i, -ö, -ü

    Examples with  the '-lar' suffix

    • oyuncaklar (toys)
    • çocuklar (children)
    • hayvanlar (animals)

    Examples with the '-ler' suffix

    • çiçekler (flowers)
    • bitkiler (plants)
    • belgeler (documents)