• Turkish grammar
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  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • The plural of a noun in Turkish is formed by adding the '-ler' or '-lar' suffxes to the noun. The ending changes according to the vowel harmony rules. 

    Forming plurals

    When the last vowel of the noun is one of the following vowels ( -a ,- ı, -o, -u ), the '-lar' suffix is used and when the last vowel of the noun is one of the vowels (-e,- i, -ö, -ü ) the '-ler' suffix is used. 

    Use (-ler, -lar) the last vowel
    '-lar' -a, -ı, -o, -u
    '-ler' -e, -i, -ö, -ü

     

    • Ağaçlar güzel görünüyor. (The trees are looking beautiful.)
    • Meyveler çok lezzetli. (The fruits are delicious.)

    The indefinite article "bir"

     The indefinite article 'bir' has no plural form. 

    Singular Plural
    bir ev (a house) evler (the houses)
    bir elma (an apple) elmalar (the apples)

     

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    Exceptions

    1. Numbers as complement

     When a number is placed to count an amount of things, the plural suffix is not used.

    Examples

    • iki kedi -> two cat(s)
    • yirmi ekmek-> twenty bread(s)
    • on beş gün -> fifteen day(s)

     

    2. Adjectives

    When any of the following adjectives are used as complements before the nouns, the noun doesn't receive the plural suffix.

    Adjectives Examples
    çok (a lot of, many) Çok değişiklik yaptık. (We made a lot of changes.)
    çok fazla (too many) Çok fazla kağıt var. (There are too many papers.)
    az (not many) Az öğretmen katıldı. (Not many teachers join.)
    kaç (how many) Kaç kitabın var? (How many books do you have?)
    bir miktar (some) Bir miktar elmam var. (I have some apples.)

     

    3. Irregular plurals

     Exception: There are some words which do not follow the vowel harmony rules:

    Singular Plural
    kalp (heart) kalpler (hearts)
    saat (hour/clock) saatler (hours/clocks)
    harf (letter) harfler (letters)
    rol (role) roller (roles)
    alkol (alcohol) alkoller (alcohols)
    protokol (protocol) protokoller (protocols)
    kontrol (control) kontroller (controls)
    kabul (accept) kabuller (acceptances)