The verb 'to be' in Turkish does not exist. Suffixes are added to nouns in order to express the meaning of the verb 'to be'. There are different suffixes for the present or past tense.
Below you find all the possible suffixes. This page will go later more in-depth in when and how to use them.
|Present tense 'to be'||Turkish suffixes|
|I am...||...‑(y)im ...‑(y)ım ...‑(y)üm ... ‑(y)um|
|You are...||...‑sin ...‑sın ...‑sün ...‑sun|
|He/she/it is...||...‑dir / ‑tir ...‑dır /‑tır ...‑dür / ‑tür ...‑dur /‑tur|
|We are....||...‑(y)iz ...‑(y)ız ...‑(y)üz ...‑(y)uz|
|You are...||...‑siniz ...‑sınız ...‑sünüz ...‑sunuz|
|They are...||...‑dırlar /‑tırlar ...‑dürler‑ / ‑türler ...‑durlar / ‑turlar|
When the words end in a vowel, the letter '-y' is added before the suffix for the pronouns 'I' (ben) and 'we' (biz).
When the word ends in one of the following letters 'ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, t', the letter 'd' changes with 't' for the third person's suffixes.
The suffix -(y)du and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-u'. For example; mutlu (happy), kuşkulu (suspicious), uykulu (sleepy)...
|Present tense 'to be'|
|I am happy.||(Ben) mutluyum.|
|You are happy.||(Sen) mutlusun.|
|He/she/it is happy.||(O) mutlu.|
|We are happy.||(Biz) mutluyuz.|
|You are happy.||(Siz) mutlusunuz.|
|They are happy.||(Onlar) mutludurlar.|
The suffix -(y)üm and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-ü'. For example; üzgün (sad), ünlü (famous), hoşgörülü (tolerant)...
|Present tense 'to be'|
|I am sad.||(Ben) üzgünüm.|
|You are sad.||(Sen) üzgünsün.|
|He/she/it is sad.||(O) üzgün.|
|We are sad.||(Biz) üzgünüz.|
|You are sad.||(Siz) üzgünsünüz.|
|They are sad.||(Onlar) üzgündürler.|
The suffix -(y)im and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-i'. For example; sinirli (angry), deli (crazy), yeni (new)...
|Present tense 'to be'|
|I am angry.||(Ben) sinirliyim.|
|You are angry.||(Sen) sinirlisin.|
|He/she/it is angry.||(O) sinirli.|
|We are angry.||(Biz) sinirliyiz.|
|You are angry.||(Siz) sinirlisiniz.|
|They are angry.||(Onlar) sinirlidirler.|
The suffix -(y)ım and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-ı'. For example; yaşlı (old), hırslı (ambitious), sakıncalı (unfavorable)...
|Present tense 'to be'|
|I am old.||(Ben) yaşlıyım.|
|You are old.||(Sen) yaşlısın.|
|He/she/it is old.||(O) yaşlı.|
|We are old.||(Biz) yaşlıyız.|
|You are old.||(Siz) yaşlısınız.|
|They are old.||(Onlar) yaşlıdırlar.|
Below you find all the possible suffixes.
|Past tense 'to be'||Turkish suffixes|
|I was||‑(y)dim ‑(y)dım ‑(y)düm ‑(y)dum|
|You were||‑(y)din ‑(y)dın ‑(y)dün ‑(y)dun|
|He/she/it was||‑(y)di ‑(y)dı ‑(y)dü ‑(y)du|
|We were||‑(y)dik ‑(y)dık ‑(y)dük ‑(y)duk|
|You were||‑(y)diniz ‑(y)dınız ‑(y)dünüz ‑(y)dunuz|
|They were||‑(y)diler ‑(y)dılar ‑(y)düler ‑(y)dular|
The suffix -(y)du is used when the last vowel of the word is '-u'. For example; mutlu (happy), kuşkulu (suspicious), uykulu (sleepy)...
|Past tense 'to be'|
|I was happy.||(Ben) mutluydum.|
|You were happy.||(Sen) mutluydun.|
|He/she/it was happy.||(O) mutluydu.|
|We were happy.||(Biz) mutluyduk.|
|You were happy.||(Siz) mutluydunuz.|
|They were happy.||(Onlar) mutluydular.|
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