• Turkish grammar
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  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • The verb 'to be' in Turkish does not exist. Suffixes are added to nouns in order to express the meaning of the verb 'to be'. There are different suffixes for the present or past tense. 

    Suffixes of the verb 'to be' in the present tense

    Below you find all the possible suffixes. This page will go later more in-depth in when and how to use them.

    Present tense 'to be' Turkish suffixes
    I am... ...‑(y)im ...‑(y)ım ...‑(y)üm ... ‑(y)um
    You are... ...‑sin ...‑sın ...‑sün ...‑sun
    He/she/it is... ...‑dir / ‑tir ...‑dır /‑tır ...‑dür / ‑tür ...‑dur /‑tur
    We are.... ...‑(y)iz ...‑(y)ız ...‑(y)üz ...‑(y)uz
    You are... ...‑siniz ...‑sınız ...‑sünüz ...‑sunuz
    They are... ...‑dırlar /‑tırlar ...‑dürler‑ / ‑türler ...‑durlar / ‑turlar

     

    When to add the conjunction '-y' between the suffix and the noun?

    When the words end in a vowel, the letter '-y' is added before the suffix for the pronouns 'I' (ben) and 'we' (biz).

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    Example with 'iyi' (good)

    • iyi + -y + -im -> iyiyim ( I am good)
    • iyi + -sin -> iyisin (you are good)
    • iyi -> (He/she/it is good)
    • iyi + -y+ -iz -> iyiyiz (we are good)
    • iyi + -siniz -> iyisiniz (you are good)
    • iyi + -ler -> iyiler (they are good)

    Formation of the letter 'd'

    When the word ends in one of the following letters 'ç, f, h, k, p, s, ş, t', the letter 'd' changes with 't' for the third person's suffixes.

    Examples

    • boş (empty)O boştur. 'It is empty.'
    • geniş (wide): Evim geniştir. 'My house is wide.'
    • soğuk (cold): Dışarısı soğuktur. 'The outside is cold.'

    Example table with the word "happy (mutlu)"

    The suffix -(y)du and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-u'. For example; mutlu (happy), kuşkulu (suspicious), uykulu (sleepy)...

    Present tense 'to be'  
    I am happy. (Ben) mutluyum.
    You are happy. (Sen) mutlusun.
    He/she/it is happy. (O) mutlu.
    We are happy. (Biz) mutluyuz.
    You are happy. (Siz) mutlusunuz.
    They are happy. (Onlar) mutludurlar.

     

    Example table with the word ''üzgün'' (sad)'

    The suffix -(y)üm and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-ü'. For example; üzgün (sad), ünlü (famous), hoşgörülü (tolerant)...

    Present tense 'to be'  
    I am sad. (Ben) üzgünüm.
    You are sad. (Sen) üzgünsün.
    He/she/it is sad. (O) üzgün.
    We are sad. (Biz) üzgünüz.
    You are sad. (Siz) üzgünsünüz.
    They are sad. (Onlar) üzgündürler.

     

    Example table with the word ''sinirli (angry)''

    The suffix -(y)im and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-i'. For example; sinirli (angry), deli (crazy), yeni (new)...

    Present tense 'to be'  
    I am angry. (Ben) sinirliyim.
    You are angry. (Sen) sinirlisin.
    He/she/it is angry. (O) sinirli.
    We are angry. (Biz) sinirliyiz.
    You are angry. (Siz) sinirlisiniz.
    They are angry. (Onlar) sinirlidirler.

     

    Example table with the word ''old (yaşlı)''

    The suffix -(y)ım and it's forms are used when the last vowel of the word is '-ı'. For example; yaşlı (old), hırslı (ambitious), sakıncalı (unfavorable)...

    Present tense 'to be'  
    I am old. (Ben) yaşlıyım.
    You are old. (Sen) yaşlısın.
    He/she/it is old. (O) yaşlı.
    We are old. (Biz) yaşlıyız.
    You are old. (Siz) yaşlısınız.
    They are old. (Onlar) yaşlıdırlar.

     

    Suffixes of the verb 'to be' in the past tense

    Below you find all the possible suffixes.

    Past tense 'to be' Turkish suffixes
    I was ‑(y)dim ‑(y)dım ‑(y)düm ‑(y)dum
    You were ‑(y)din ‑(y)dın ‑(y)dün ‑(y)dun 
    He/she/it was ‑(y)di ‑(y)dı ‑(y)dü ‑(y)du 
    We were ‑(y)dik ‑(y)dık ‑(y)dük ‑(y)duk
    You were ‑(y)diniz ‑(y)dınız ‑(y)dünüz ‑(y)dunuz 
    They were ‑(y)diler ‑(y)dılar ‑(y)düler ‑(y)dular

     

    Example table with the word ''happy (mutlu)''

    The suffix -(y)du is used when the last vowel of the word is '-u'. For example; mutlu (happy), kuşkulu (suspicious), uykulu (sleepy)...

    Past tense 'to be'  
    I was happy. (Ben) mutluydum.
    You were happy. (Sen) mutluydun.
    He/she/it was happy. (O) mutluydu.
    We were happy. (Biz) mutluyduk.
    You were happy. (Siz) mutluydunuz.
    They were happy. (Onlar) mutluydular.