• Turkish grammar
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  • 1 The Turkish alphabet
  • 2 The Turkish pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Turkish cases [0/11]
  • 4 Turkish articles [0/1]
  • 5 Turkish nouns [0/5]
  • 6 Turkish adjectives [0/2]
  • 7 Turkish adverbs [0/11]
  • 8 Turkish pronouns [0/12]
  • 9 Turkish prepositions and postpositions [0/10]
  • 10 Verbs in Turkish [0/32]
  • 10.1 Turkish infinitive [0/2]
  • 10.2 The verb ''to be'' in Turkish (conjugation) [0/3]
  • 10.3 Turkish verb conjugation and tenses [0/12]
  • 10.4 Causative verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.5 Passive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.6 Reflexive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.7 Reciprocal verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.8 Modal verbs in Turkish [0/3]
  • 10.9 Auxiliary verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 10.10 Subjunctive verbs in Turkish [0/2]
  • 11 Turkish sentence structure and phrases [0/7]
  • The Turkish alphabet includes 29 letters and these 29 letters are divided into two groups:

    1. the vowels (ünlü harfler)
    2. the consonants (ünsüz harfler)
    The vowels a, ı, e, i, o, ö, u, ü
    The consonants b, c, ç, d, f, g, ğ, h, j, k, I, m, n, p, r, s, ş, t, v, y, z 

    The Turkish alphabet and pronunciation

    A, B, C, Ç, D, E, F, G, Ğ, H, I, İ, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, Ş, T, U, Ü, V, Y, Z

    The letter Pronunciation Example
    A/a as the a in 'car' anne-mother
    B/b as the b in 'book' baba-father
    C/c as the j in 'jealous' cam-glass
    Ç/ç as the ch in 'check' çay-tea
    D/d as the d in 'dog' deniz-sea
    E/e as the e in 'egg' ev-home
    F/f as the f in 'fog' fare-mouse
    G/g as the g in 'girl' gece-night
    Ğ/ğ has no sound  
    H/h as the h in 'home' heyecan-excitement
    I/ı as the i in 'cousin' ırmak-river
    İ/i as the i in 'sit' ince-thin
    J/j as the s in 'leisure' jandarma-gendarme
    K/k as the k in 'call' kabak-pumpkin
    L/l as the l in 'love' lale-tulip
    M/m as the m in 'mood' meyve-fruit
    N/n as the n in 'night' nane-mint
    O/o as the o in 'on' okyanus-ocean
    Ö/ö as the u in 'urge' önce-before
    P/p as the p in 'pumpkin' pis-dirty
    R/r as the r in 'roar' radyo-radio
    S/s as the s in 'song' saha-field
    Ş/ş as the sh in 'sharp' şaka-joke
    T/t as the t in 'taxi' tavuk-chicken
    U/u as the u in 'put' uzun-long
    Ü/ü as the u in 'nude' üzgün-sad
    V/v as the v in 'very' ve-and
    Y/y as the y in 'young' yemek-food
    Z/z as the z in 'zone' zaman-time

    The letter 'ğ' (soft g)

    enlightened A word never begins with the letter 'ğ' (yumuşak g).

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    Examples with the letter 'ğ'

    • Eylülde doğdu. She was born in September.
    • Yağmur yağıyor. It's raining.
    • Eğer sen olsaydım, taşınırdım. If I were you, I would move.
    • Diğer kız beni aramadı. The other girl didn't call me.