In this chapter you will learn the basic Dutch sentence structure. You can find the explanation of the Dutch main clauses, negations and interrogatives.
The Dutch sentences contains various elements; the most important are subject, verb, the direct object and the indirect object:
The subject is the person, or object that performs the action in a sentence. The subject can be one or more words.
To find the subject in de sentence, you can ask the question: 'Who or what does something in the sentence?'
|Hij gaat morgen naar school.||He is going to school tomorrow.||Hij (he)|
|Paula eet veel kaas.||Paula eats a lot of cheese.||Paula|
Not all sentences have a subject, for example sentences with an imperative have no subject.
The finite verb tells you what something or someone is doing. A sentence can contain multiple verbs, but only one is the finite verb.
To determine what verb of the sentence is the finite one, you can change the tense of the sentence. The verb that changes when doing this, is the finite verb.
|Zij kookt eten vanavond.||She cooks dinner tonight.||Kookt (cooks)|
|Herman en Helma zijn tien jaar getrouwd.||Herman and Helma have been married for ten years.||Zijn (have)|
The direct objects undergo the actions of the sentence.
|Ik eet een banaan.||I eat a banana.||Banaan (banana)|
|Zij zoeken een boek.||They are looking for a book.||Boek (book)|
Not all sentences have direct objects.
The indirect object is the one which receives the direct object of the sentence.
|Ik ga naar het strand met mijn moeder.||I go to the beach with my mum.||Mijn moeder (my mum)|
|Hij geeft de rozen aan haar.||He gives her roses.||Haar (her)|
Not all sentences have direct objects.
The prepositional object is a part of the sentence with a fixed preposition. The prepositional object always starts with a preposition that belongs to the main verb in the sentence.
To find the prepositional object the following three aspects are important:
1. The part of the sentence starts with a preposition.
2. The preposition can not be replaced by another preposition without changing the meaning of the sentence.
3. The preposition forms a fixed combination with the predicate.
|Ik wacht op de bus.||I wait for the bus.||Op de bus (for the bus)|
|Hij lijkt op zijn moeder.||He looks like his mum.||Op zijn moeder (like his mum)|
In Dutch the adverbial clause gives more information about what is expressed in the predicate. The adverbial clause can consist of:
You can find the adverbial clause by asking one of the following questions:
|Gisteren ging hij zwemmen.||Yesterday he went swimming.||Gisteren (yesterday)|
|Ik heb vijftig kilometer gefietst.||I biked fifity kilometers.||Vijftig kilometer (fifty kilometers)|
The Dutch main clauses are independent sentences.
The Dutch negation is indicated by 'niet' or 'geen'.
The Dutch interrogatives are formed by having the verb and the subject switch places.
A conditional is used to describe a certain proviso and the result if the condition is fulfilled.
The relative clauses are used to refer to something in the main clause. The clauses begin with a relative pronoun or adverb.
A conjunction usually connects sentences (or sentence parts). The Dutch language knows two kinds of conjunctions:
And now train your skills with the exercices below!
Hi, I'm Adriaan. I have been teaching Dutch and Spanish for seven years to students of all levels, from absolute beginners to... students who only need conversation. My students are of all ages, from 9 to 76 years old and from all continents. With each student I create a Google doc in which I put all the grammatical information, exercises and homework after each class. I can help you if you want to learn the language for fun, for work, or to prepare for an exam. Languages are my passion! See you soon! Read more
Are you the one that .....? live abroad and would like to know the Dutch language and culture. in Netherlands are live and like you want to... integrate with the Dutch culture and languageinterested to find out more about Dutch culture and language. lives abroad and you want to keep Dutchlives abroad and your children would you like to learn Dutch. like to want to learn from home or from a familiar environmentdo not have access to travel individual learnslike in private time wants to learnHow can I help you?I'm Marije Platteeuw and I help people to improve them skills or to learn new skillsThese include Dutch lessons and culture lessons. In addition, I help people with their career. The language is also very important. For me it is important that you feel comfortable with me so that you can properly learn. I think it is important that you like it, because then you can learn the most off it. We look at your initial situation and where you want to go. We are going to have a personalised route. We check to see if we need to review the interim plan. I started my teaching career in 2006 and I have experience in giving lessons to children, young people and adults. From beginners to advanced. I now live in Valencia and I know what it's like to learn another language. All my experiences and knowledge I am going to share with you during the lessons. Do you think I can help you? Plan a free introduction conversation with me. I am so exciting to be your teacher Read more
Hello,I would love to help you improve your knowledge of English.I adapt the lessons following your wishes : are you a beginner and need to get... some basic knowledge with grammar and easy texts or do you want to improve your conversation skills. I can help you either way.Looking forward to meeting you ! Read more
4.5/5 from 0 reviews