Past participle in Dutch
Definition and usage of the Dutch past participle
1) The past participle of Dutch weak verbs
The following rule is used to form the past participle:
ge- (prefix) + stem + t/d (ending)
- Prefix: if the verb starts with a prefix '(ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-), the 'ge-' does not have to be added.
- Ending: To determine whether the past participle has a '-t' or '-d' ending, the stem of the verb is looked at. If the consonant of the ending of the stem can be found in the word 't exKofschip, the past participle gets a '-t'. The other verbs end in '-d'
Keep in mind: if the stem already ends in '-t' or '-d', the extra '-t' or '-d' of the part participle does not have to be added.
|Weak verb||Past participle||Example||Translation|
|Leven (to live)||Geleefd||Zij heeft in Nederland geleefd.||She has lived in the Netherlands.|
|Antwoorden (to answer)||Geantwoord||Ik had gisteren op je e-mail geantwoord, voor ik naar de supermarkt ging.||I had answered your e-mail yesterday before I went to the supermarket.|
|Haten (to hate)||Gehaat||Zij worden op veel plekken gehaat.||They are hated in many places.|
|Werken (to work)||Gewerkt||
Ik heb vandaag hard gewerkt.
|I have worked hard today.|
2) The past participle of Dutch strong verbs
The following rule is used to form the past participle:
Ge- (prefix) + stem + -en (ending)
Here again applies: if the verbs start with one of the prefixes:'ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-' the suffix 'ge-' does not have to be added.
|Strong verbs||Past participle||Example||Translation|
|Lezen (to read)||Gelezen||Ik heb het hele artikel gelezen.||I have read the whole article.|
|Eten (to eat)||Gegeten||Wij hebben bij dat nieuwe restaurant gegeten.||We have eaten at that new restaurant.|
|Helpen (to help)||Geholpen||Zij hadden de leraar na school geholpen, voordat ze naar huis gingen.||They had helped the teacher after school, before they went home.|
|Lopen (to walk)||Gelopen||Hij is naar de stad gelopen.||He has walked to the city.|
3) Dutch irregular verbs
The table below shows you the past participle of the 6 Dutch irregular verbs.
|hebben||gehad||Ik heb het erg naar mijn zin gehad.||I have enjoyed myself very much.|
|kunnen||gekund||Ik had toen naar school gekund.||I could have been able to go to school.|
|mogen||gemogen||Ik had dat niet gemogen.||I would not have been allowed.|
|willen||gewild||Ik had daar graag naar toe gewild.||I would have liked to go there.|
|zijn||geweest||Ik ben naar Spanje geweest.||I have been to Spain.|
|zullen||gezuld||Ik had naar werk gezuld.||I shall have gone to work.|
'gezuld' is usually not used in Dutch.
Train your skills by doing the exercises about Dutch past tenses below!
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