• Dutch grammar
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  • 1 Dutch alphabet [0/2]
  • 2 Dutch pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Dutch sentence structure
  • 4 Dutch articles (de, het, een) [0/2]
  • 5 Dutch nouns [0/8]
  • 6 Dutch pronouns [0/12]
  • 7 Dutch prepositions [0/9]
  • 8 Dutch adjectives [0/6]
  • 9 Dutch adverbs [0/16]
  • 10 Dutch verbs [0/27]
  • 10.1 Dutch infinitive (verbs with and without 'te') [0/2]
  • 10.2 Dutch regular verbs (weak verbs) [0/2]
  • 10.3 Dutch irregular verbs (strong verbs) [0/2]
  • 10.4 Dutch imperative (gebiedende wijs) [0/2]
  • 10.5 Dutch modal verbs [0/2]
  • 10.6 Dutch reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 10.7 Dutch auxiliary verbs [0/2]
  • 10.8 Active and passive voice in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.9 Separable and inseparable verbs in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.10 Present participle in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.11 Past participle in Dutch [0/3]
  • 10.12 Dutch subjunctive (aanvoegende wijs) [0/2]
  • 10.13 Dutch gerund [0/2]
  • 10.14 Dutch verb list
  • 11 Dutch verb conjugation and tenses [0/34]
  • Exercise to practice Dutch verb conjugation and tenses 1 (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to practice Dutch verb conjugation and tenses 2 (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Dutch present simple (onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.2 Dutch past simple (onvoltooid verleden tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.3 Dutch present perfect (voltooid tegenwoordige tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.4 Dutch past perfect (voltooid verleden tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.5 Dutch future simple [0/4]
  • 11.6 Dutch future perfect [0/4]
  • 11.7 Dutch conditional tense [0/4]
  • 11.8 Dutch conditional perfect [0/4]
  • Definition and usage of the present perfect 

    The Dutch present perfect is used to express an action or event that happened in the past and already ended. This is actually very similar to the simple past and often mixed up by the Dutch themselves.  

    The present perfect does not have rules for when to use it, but only tips for guidance when to use this tense.  

    Situation Example Translation
    To express an action or event in the past that ended.
    • Ik heb een boek gelezen.
    • Ik ben naar huis gefietst.
    • I have read a book.
    • I have cycled home.  

    Conjugation of the Dutch present perfect 

    The verb 'hebben' (to have) is always used with the past participle to create a present perfect sentence. 

    In some cases the verb 'zijn' (to be) is used: 

    - To form the past participle of the link verbs:  

    • 'zijn' (to be) 
    • 'worden' (to become) 
    • 'blijven' (to remain) 
    • 'blijken' (to appear) 
    • 'lijken' (to seem)  
    • 'heten' (to be named) 
    • 'schijnen' (to appear) 
    • 'dunken' (to seem) 
    • 'voorkomen' (to prevent)  

    - and to form the past participle of verbs that express movement, development of change. For example: 

    • 'beginnen' (to start)  
    • 'gaan' (to go)  
    • 'groeien' (to grow)  

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    1) The Dutch past participle of weak verbs 

    The next rule is used to form the past participle of weak verbs: 

    ge- (prefix) + stem + t/d (ending

    • Prefix: if the verb starts with a prefix ('ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-'), the 'ge-' does not have to be added.  
    • Ending: You have to look at the stem of the verb to determine whether the past participle ends on a '-d' or '-t'. If the last consonant of the stem is in the word 't exKofschip, the past participle ends in '-t'. The other verbs end in '-d'.  

    enlightened If the stem already ends in '-t' or '-d', the extra '-t' or '-d' does not have to be added. 

    The table below shows examples of forming the present perfect with the verb 'hebben' (to have) and a verb ending in '-d' and ending in '-t'.

    Subject Form antwoorden (to answer) wachten (to wait)
    Ik (I) heb + past participle  heb geantwoord heb gewacht
    Jij, u (You) hebt + past participle hebt geantwoord hebt gewacht
    Hij, zij, het (He, she, it) heeft + past participle heeft geantwoord heeft gewacht
    Wij (We) hebben + past participle hebben geantwoord hebben gewacht
    Jullie (You) hebben + past participle hebben geantwoord hebben gewacht
    Zij (They) hebben + past participle hebben geantwoord hebben gewacht

    2) The Dutch past participle of strong verbs 

    The next formula is used to form the past participle of strong verbs: 

    ge- (prefix) + stem + -en (ending)

    enlightened Remember: if the verbs begin with the prefixes: 'ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-' the 'ge-' does not have to be added.   

    The table below shows examples of forming the present perfect with the verb 'zijn' (to be) and the past participle. 

    Subject Form beginnen (to start) sterven (to die)
    Ik ben + past participle ben begonnen ben gestorven
    Jij, u bent + past participle bent begonnen bent gestorven
    Hij, zij, het is + past participle is begonnen is gestorven
    Wij zijn + past participle zijn begonnen zijn gestorven
    Jullie zijn + past participle zijn begonnen zijn gestorven
    Zij zijn + past participle zijn begonnen zijn gestorven

    enlightened Strong verbs that have an 'i' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form.   

    enlightened Strong verbs that have an 'e' in the infinitive, get 'o' in the past form.  

    Train your skills by doing the exercises below!