Dutch present perfect (voltooid tegenwoordige tijd)
Definition and usage of the present perfect
The Dutch present perfect is used to express an action or event that happened in the past and already ended. This is actually very similar to the simple past and often mixed up by the Dutch themselves.
The present perfect does not have rules for when to use it, but only tips for guidance when to use this tense.
|To express an action or event in the past that ended.||
Conjugation of the Dutch present perfect
The verb 'hebben' (to have) is always used with the past participle to create a present perfect sentence.
In some cases the verb 'zijn' (to be) is used:
- To form the past participle of the link verbs:
- 'zijn' (to be)
- 'worden' (to become)
- 'blijven' (to remain)
- 'blijken' (to appear)
- 'lijken' (to seem)
- 'heten' (to be named)
- 'schijnen' (to appear)
- 'dunken' (to seem)
- 'voorkomen' (to prevent)
- and to form the past participle of verbs that express movement, development of change. For example:
- 'beginnen' (to start)
- 'gaan' (to go)
- 'groeien' (to grow)
1) The Dutch past participle of weak verbs
The next rule is used to form the past participle of weak verbs:
ge- (prefix) + stem + t/d (ending
- Prefix: if the verb starts with a prefix ('ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-'), the 'ge-' does not have to be added.
- Ending: You have to look at the stem of the verb to determine whether the past participle ends on a '-d' or '-t'. If the last consonant of the stem is in the word 't exKofschip, the past participle ends in '-t'. The other verbs end in '-d'.
If the stem already ends in '-t' or '-d', the extra '-t' or '-d' does not have to be added.
The table below shows examples of forming the present perfect with the verb 'hebben' (to have) and a verb ending in '-d' and ending in '-t'.
|Subject||Form||antwoorden (to answer)||wachten (to wait)|
|Ik (I)||heb + past participle||heb geantwoord||heb gewacht|
|Jij, u (You)||hebt + past participle||hebt geantwoord||hebt gewacht|
|Hij, zij, het (He, she, it)||heeft + past participle||heeft geantwoord||heeft gewacht|
|Wij (We)||hebben + past participle||hebben geantwoord||hebben gewacht|
|Jullie (You)||hebben + past participle||hebben geantwoord||hebben gewacht|
|Zij (They)||hebben + past participle||hebben geantwoord||hebben gewacht|
2) The Dutch past participle of strong verbs
The next formula is used to form the past participle of strong verbs:
ge- (prefix) + stem + -en (ending)
Remember: if the verbs begin with the prefixes: 'ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-' the 'ge-' does not have to be added.
The table below shows examples of forming the present perfect with the verb 'zijn' (to be) and the past participle.
|Subject||Form||beginnen (to start)||sterven (to die)|
|Ik||ben + past participle||ben begonnen||ben gestorven|
|Jij, u||bent + past participle||bent begonnen||bent gestorven|
|Hij, zij, het||is + past participle||is begonnen||is gestorven|
|Wij||zijn + past participle||zijn begonnen||zijn gestorven|
|Jullie||zijn + past participle||zijn begonnen||zijn gestorven|
|Zij||zijn + past participle||zijn begonnen||zijn gestorven|
Strong verbs that have an 'i' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form.
Strong verbs that have an 'e' in the infinitive, get 'o' in the past form.
Train your skills by doing the exercises below!
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
Online Dutch classes
I teach: Dutch
Hello!My name is Guus Weltings. I am 21 years old and I am currently living in the Netherlands. Currently I'm speaking two languages (Dutch... and English), and learning two others (Spanish and German), so I am very familiar with the process!Dutch can be used in more countries than you think! It is an official language in Aruba, Brussels, Curaçao, Flanders, Sint Maarten and Suriname. The Dutch culture is very diverse and full of foreign influences. I can help you learn all you want about our country and culture, and have fun doing so! Of course, if you just want to practice your Dutch by having conversations I can help you as well.We can start off with a free trial class in which we will get to know each other and make a planning for the topics that you want to learn. After our trial class we could start right away with your first class!I hope to see you soon! Tot snel!Guus Read more
Dutch language lessons from beginner to advanced
I teach: Dutch
Hi! I live in Germany since 2014, I live in the Frankfurt am Main area. I teach German to refugees since the beginning of 2017 and I have been... teaching Dutch at several language schools, at peoples homes and in-house at several companies. I passed the C1-level Test for German at the Goethe Institut. It is my goal to adapt my lessons as much as possible to the wishes of the student. This means that, besides offering regular learning methods, I am open to initiatives like talking about subjects that are of interest to the student, for example reading and discussing articles, watching and discussing educational videos and/or current happenings in the world. I look forward to meeting you online! Read more
Very experienced teacher!
English lessons all levels
I teach: Dutch, English, French, German
Hello,I would love to help you improve your knowledge of English.I adapt the lessons following your wishes : are you a beginner and need to get... some basic knowledge with grammar and easy texts or do you want to improve your conversation skills. I can help you either way.Looking forward to meeting you ! Read more