Dutch past perfect (voltooid verleden tijd)
Definition and usage of the Dutch past perfect
The past perfect is used to describe a situation that happened in the past and ended in the past.
It is used to clarify that a certain event happened before another event.
The following table shows examples of the usage of the past perfect:
|You want to describe an event or action in the past that has ended in the past. The event or action has happened before another event in the past.||
Conjugation of the Dutch past perfect
The verb 'hebben' is always used with the past participle to create a present perfect sentence.
In some cases the verb 'zijn' (to be) is used:
- 'Zijn' is used together with these verbs in the past participle tense:
- 'zijn' (to be)
- 'worden' (to become)
- 'blijven' (to remain)
- 'blijken' (to appear)
- 'lijken' (to seem)
- 'heten' (to be named)
- 'schijnen' (to appear)
- 'dunken' (to seem)
- 'voorkomen' (to prevent)
- To form the past participle of verbs that express movement, development of change. For example:
- 'beginnen' (to start)
- 'gaan' (to go)
- 'groeien' (to grow)
1) The past participle of Dutch weak verbs
The following rule is used to form the past participle:
ge- (prefix) + stem + t/d (ending)
Prefix: if the verb starts with a prefix '(ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-), the 'ge-' does not have to be added.
Ending: To determine whether the past participle has a '-t' or '-d' ending, the stem of the verb is looked at. If the consonant of the ending of the stem can be found in the word 't exKofschip, the past participle gets a '-t'. The other verbs end in '-d'
Keep in mind: if the stem already ends in '-t' or '-d', the extra '-t' or '-d' of the part participle does not have to be added.
|Subject||Form||Antwoorden (to answer)||Wachten (to wait)|
|Ik (I)||had + past participle||had geantwoord||had gewacht|
|Jij, u (you)||had + past participle||had geantwoord||had gewacht|
|Hij, zij, het (he, she, it)||had + past participle||had geantwoord||had gewacht|
|Wij (we)||hadden + past participle||hadden geantwoord||hadden gewacht|
|Jullie (you)||hadden + past participle||hadden geantwoord||hadden gewacht|
|Zij (they)||hadden + past participle||hadden geantwoord||hadden gewacht|
2) The past participle of Dutch strong verbs
The following rule is used to form the past participle:
Ge- (prefix) + stem + -en (ending)
Here again applies: if the verbs start with one of the prefixes:'ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-' the suffix 'ge-' does not have to be added.
Have a look at the table below to see the examples of the past participle of strong verbs.
|Subject||Form||Beginnen (to start)||Sterven (to die)|
|Ik||was + past participle||was begonnen||was gestorven|
|Jij, u||was + past participle||was begonnen||was gestorven|
|Hij, zij, het||was + past participle||was begonnen||was gestorven|
|Wij||waren + past participle||waren begonnen||waren gestorven|
|Jullie||waren + past participle||waren begonnen||waren gestorven|
|Zij||waren + past participle||waren begonnen||waren gestorven|
As you can see in the table:
- Strong verbs that have an 'i' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form
- Strong verbs that have an 'e' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form.
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