• Dutch grammar
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  • 1 Dutch alphabet [0/2]
  • 2 Dutch pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Dutch sentence structure
  • 4 Dutch articles (de, het, een) [0/2]
  • 5 Dutch nouns [0/8]
  • 6 Dutch pronouns [0/12]
  • 7 Dutch prepositions [0/9]
  • 8 Dutch adjectives [0/6]
  • 9 Dutch adverbs [0/16]
  • 10 Dutch verbs [0/27]
  • 10.1 Dutch infinitive (verbs with and without 'te') [0/2]
  • 10.2 Dutch regular verbs (weak verbs) [0/2]
  • 10.3 Dutch irregular verbs (strong verbs) [0/2]
  • 10.4 Dutch imperative (gebiedende wijs) [0/2]
  • 10.5 Dutch modal verbs [0/2]
  • 10.6 Dutch reflexive verbs [0/2]
  • 10.7 Dutch auxiliary verbs [0/2]
  • 10.8 Active and passive voice in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.9 Separable and inseparable verbs in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.10 Present participle in Dutch [0/2]
  • 10.11 Past participle in Dutch [0/3]
  • 10.12 Dutch subjunctive (aanvoegende wijs) [0/2]
  • 10.13 Dutch gerund [0/2]
  • 10.14 Dutch verb list
  • 11 Dutch verb conjugation and tenses [0/34]
  • Exercise to practice Dutch verb conjugation and tenses 1 (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise to practice Dutch verb conjugation and tenses 2 (Score -/-)Free
  • 11.1 Dutch present simple (onvoltooid tegenwoordige tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.2 Dutch past simple (onvoltooid verleden tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.3 Dutch present perfect (voltooid tegenwoordige tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.4 Dutch past perfect (voltooid verleden tijd) [0/4]
  • 11.5 Dutch future simple [0/4]
  • 11.6 Dutch future perfect [0/4]
  • 11.7 Dutch conditional tense [0/4]
  • 11.8 Dutch conditional perfect [0/4]
  • Dutch past perfect (voltooid verleden tijd)

    Exercises

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    1. Exercise to practice Dutch past perfect 1 Score -/-
    2. Exercise to practice Dutch past perfect 2 Score -/-
    3. Practice the Dutch past perfect Score -/-
    4. Dutch past perfect exercise Score -/-

    Definition and usage of the Dutch past perfect 

    The past perfect is used to describe a situation that happened in the past and ended in the past
    It is used to clarify that a certain event happened before another event. 

    The following table shows examples of the usage of the past perfect: 

    Situation Example Translation
    You want to describe an event or action in the past that has ended in the past. The event or action has happened before another event in the past. 
    • Kim was erg moe, omdat ze weinig had geslapen.  
    • Toen ik bij de supermarkt aankwam, was deze al gesloten.  
    • Kim was very tired, because she had slept very little.
    • When I arrived at the supermarket, it had already closed.  

    Conjugation of the Dutch past perfect  

    The verb 'hebben' is always used with the past participle to create a present perfect sentence.  

    In some cases the verb 'zijn' (to be) is used:

    - 'Zijn' is used together with these verbs in the past participle tense:

    • 'zijn' (to be) 
    • 'worden' (to become) 
    • 'blijven' (to remain) 
    • 'blijken' (to appear) 
    • 'lijken' (to seem)  
    • 'heten' (to be named) 
    • 'schijnen' (to appear) 
    • 'dunken' (to seem) 
    • 'voorkomen' (to prevent)  

    - To form the past participle of verbs that express movement, development of change. For example: 

    • 'beginnen' (to start)  
    • 'gaan' (to go)  
    • 'groeien' (to grow)  

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    1) The past participle of Dutch weak verbs 

    The following rule is used to form the past participle:  

    ge- (prefix) + stem + t/d (ending)

    Prefix: if the verb starts with a prefix '(ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-), the 'ge-' does not have to be added.  

    Ending: To determine whether the past participle has a '-t' or '-d' ending, the stem of the verb is looked at.  If the consonant of the ending of the stem can be found in the word 't exKofschip, the past participle gets a '-t'. The other verbs end in '-d' 

    ​​enlightenedKeep in mind: if the stem already ends in '-t' or '-d', the extra '-t' or '-d' of the part participle does not have to be added.  

    Subject Form Antwoorden (to answer) Wachten (to wait)
    Ik (I) had + past participle had geantwoord had gewacht
    Jij, u (you) had + past participle had geantwoord had gewacht
    Hij, zij, het (he, she, it) had + past participle had geantwoord had gewacht
    Wij (we) hadden + past participle hadden geantwoord hadden gewacht
    Jullie (you) hadden + past participle hadden geantwoord hadden gewacht
    Zij (they) hadden + past participle hadden geantwoord hadden gewacht 

    2) The past participle of Dutch strong verbs 

    The following rule is used to form the past participle: 

    Ge- (prefix) + stem + -en (ending)

    enlightenedHere again applies: if the verbs start with one of the prefixes:'ge-', 'be-', 'er-', 'her-', 'ver-' and 'ont-' the suffix 'ge-' does not have to be added.

    Have a look at the table below to see the examples of the past participle of strong verbs. 

    Subject Form Beginnen (to start) Sterven (to die)
    Ik was + past participle  was begonnen was gestorven
    Jij, u was + past participle was begonnen was gestorven
    Hij, zij, het was + past participle was begonnen was gestorven
    Wij waren + past participle waren begonnen waren gestorven
    Jullie waren + past participle  waren begonnen waren gestorven
    Zij waren + past participle waren begonnen waren gestorven

    enlightenedAs you can see in the table:

    • Strong verbs that have an 'i' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form
    • Strong verbs that have an 'e' in the infinitive, get an 'o' in the past form. 

    Train your skills by doing the exercises below!