As was mentioned in the lesson about numbers in the course for beginners, there are groups we divide numbers into. In Slovak language there are 5 of them. We indicate gender, grammatical number and we do the declension using 6 cases according to the models. Let's have a look at all of them!
Classification of numerals
First of all, the numerals have the form of nouns (sto), adjectives (prvý) or adverbs (dvojako). Here is the classification:
- tri (three), päť (five)...
- veľa (a lot), málo (a few)...
- druhý (second), štvrtý (fourth)...
- posledný (the last one), ostatný (the one that is left from many options)...
- dvoje (two of..), jedni (one of..)...
- viacerí (many of..), viacero (many of...)...
- jednako (in one way), štvorako (in 4 ways)...
- mnohorako (in many ways)...
- dvakrát (two times), veľakrát (many times)...
- jeden raz (one time), veľa ráz (many times)...
- štvornásobný (quadruple), mnohonásobne (many times)..
These numerals could be
certain (when we know exactly how many, they contain number)
- for example: jeden (one), jeden raz (one time), dvoje (two of..)
uncertain (we don't know how many, they express the quantity only approximately)
- for example: málo (a few),veľa ráz (many times), viacerí (many of)
Gender of numerals
The gender of the numerals depends on the word standing behind them. For example:
- štyri stoličky (4 chairs) - stolička is feminine gender, therefore, štyri has also feminine gender
- štyria chlapci (4 boys) - chlapec is masculine gender, therefore štyria has also masculine ggender
Singular or plural of numerals
This depends also on the grammatical number of the nouns standing behind the numerals. For example:
- prvý chlapec (the first boy) - chlapec is in singular, therefore prvý is also singular
- prví chlapci (the first boys) - chlapci is in plural, therefore prví is also plural
Declension of numerals
- numerals that are in a form of nouns are declined according to the models of the noun
- numerals that are in a form of adjectives are declined according to the models of the adjectives
However, there are numerals, that have their own declension.
Declension of number 1
and plural form
|Case||masculine living||feminine, neutral and masculine non-living|
Number 1 (jeden) is the model of itself!
Declension of 2,3,4
Dva, tri, štyri are declined in the same way.
|Case||masculine living||masculine non-living||feminine and neutral|
|I||dvoma, dvomi||dvoma, dvomi||dvoma, dvomi|
|I||troma, tromi||troma, tromi|
|I||štyroma, štyrmi||štyroma, štyrmi|
Number from 5-99 are declined according to this model.
Other models for numerals
As was mentioned before, we use some noun models or adjective models as well.
- STO is declined according to mesto if stands alone. In connection with a noun, it is indeclinable.
- TISÍC is declined according to stroj if stands alone. In connection with a noun, it is indeclinable.
- MILIÓN is declined according to dub if stands alone. In connection with a noun it is indeclinable.
- MILIARDA is declined according to žena if stands alone. In connecton with a noun it is indeclinable.
Collective numerals are indeclinable.
Ordinal, generic and multiple numerals are declined according to adjective models pekný and cudzí, depending on endings.
Almost all of them are declined according to pekný, as almost all of them end with -ý and hard or bilabial consonant before -ý.
But "tretí" and "tisíci" are declined according to cudzí.
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