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In this lesson you will learn what is the classification of the prepositions, you will learn the vocabulary of the most used prepositions and when to use them. We do not indicate the grammatical number, the gender or the declension of prepositions.
In Slovak language we differentiate between the two main groups:
Primary prepositions are further divided into two groups:
We included also the case in which is the noun when used with the preposition.
As you can see, all of the prepositions are connected with the case. G (genitive), D (dative), A (accusative), L (locative) or I (instrumental).
|English prepositions||Slovak prepostions||Case||Example|
|from||z, zo||G||zo záhrady (from the garden)|
|in, inside||v, vo||L||v kostole (in the church)|
|on, on top of||na||L||na stole (on the table)|
|with||s, so||I||so psom (with the dog)|
|in front of||pred||I||pred domom (in front of the house)|
|behind||za||I||za dverami (behind the door)|
|under||pod||I||pod oknom (under the window)|
|above||nad||I||nad tebou (above you)|
|opposite to||oproti||D||oproti obchodu (opposite to the shop)|
|into (something)||do||G||do krabice (into the box)|
|to (something, someone)||k, ku||D||k rodičom (to the parents)|
|next to||pri||L||pri škole (next to the school)|
There are many more prepositions. Here is the general list of the prepositions divided according to the cases they are used with.
|Genitive||bez, do, od, u, z, zo, spod, sponad, spomedzi...|
|Dative||k, ku, proti, naproti, voči, kvôli...|
|Accusative||cez, pre, na, nad...|
|Locative||pri, popri, o, v, na, po...|
|Instrumental||s, so, za, medzi, pod, pred, nad...|
Some of the prepositions can be connected with more than one case. For example:
You might notice that some prepositions are connected with -o or -u. This is called the vocalization.
Due to the pronunciation, the prepositions s, z, v and k connect with -o or -u,
It is mainly because of the fact, that the next word starts with a similar or the same letter. Here are the examples:
When does it happen? There are four cases:
Preposition v, vo are special, as they can appear also in their non-vocalized form, even if it follows the rules: v tvojom, v tvare, v tvári...
Pay attention to the Slovak "where". We differentiate between 3 types of where:
The question we ask is "Where is XY situated?" :
The question we ask is "Where does XY go?":
The question we ask is "From where does XY go?"
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