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  • In this lesson we will explain the difference between the active and passive participle. Also, we will review the basic rules about creation of these participles. 

    The difference between active and passive participle

    Active participle is used with people doing some actions, while passive participle is used with the things that are being used by somebody somehow. Usually, the word base of the verb has to be changed or a prefix added.  

    You can see the difference on these two examples.

    Dievča číta knihu. = The girl reads a book.

    • active = čítajúce dievča (the girl who is reading.)
    • passive = čítaná kniha (the book which is read.)

    Chlapec píše list. = The boy writes a letter.

    • active = píšuci chlapec (the boy who is writing)
    • passive = písaný list (the letter which is written)

    enlightenedThe active and passive participles are used very rarely in general spoken Slovak language. You can find them mainly in the literature. 

     

    Active participle

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    Creation of active participle

    To create the active participle, you only add a suffix -ci, -ca, -ce to the word base created from 3rd person plural:

    Example: 

    English infinitive Slovak Infinitive 3. person plural - they Active participle (masculine)
    to work pracovať pracujú pracujúci
    to write písať píšu píšuci
    to sit sedieť sedia sediaci
    to stand stáť stoja stojaci

    enlightenedRemember that the suffix depends on the gender of the noun which it describes.

    • -ci = masculine gender (Singular, Plural)
    • -ca = feminine gender (Singular)
    • -ce = neutral gender (Singular, Plural), feminine gender (Plural), masculine gender (Plural)

    Let´s see how the active participle "pracujúci" (from the verb pracovať - to work) changes with different nouns.

    Noun Singular Plural
    žena (f.) - a woman pracujúca žena pracujúce ženy
    dievča (n.) - a girl pracujúce dievča pracujúce dievčatá
    otec (m.) - a father pracujúci otec pracujúci otcovia
    stroj (m.) - a machine pracujúci stroj pracujúce stroje


    enlightenedAll of the active participles are declined accordng to the adjective "cudzí".

    Examples

    Present tense Active participle
    Mama číta. (Mum reads.) čítajúca mama (a reading mom)
    Dievča spieva. (Girl sings.) spievajúce dievča (a singing girl)
    Majiteľ hľadá psa. (Owner is looking for a dog) hľadajúci majiteľ (an owner who is looking for)


    Passive participle

    Creation of passive participle

    To create passive participle you remove -ť out of infinitives and add suffix -ný (usually when the verb ends with -ať)

    English infinitive Slovak infinitive Passive participle (masculine)
    to read číta-ť číta
    to sing spieva-ť spieva
    to look for hľada-ť hľada
    to build stava-ť stava

    Sometimes the words can end with other suffixes, and those are as follows: -tý and -ený (this usually happens when the verb ends with -iť)

    English infinitive Slovak infinitive Passive participle (masculine)
    to cook var-iť varený
    to sew ši-ť ši
    to talk hovor-iť hovorený
    to drive jazd-iť jazdený

    enlightenedRemember that the suffix depends on the gender of the noun which it describes.

    • -ný / tý / etý = masculine gender (Singular, Plural)
    • -ná / tá / etá = feminine gender (Singular)
    • -né / té / eté= neutral gender (Singular, Plural), feminine gender (Plural), masculine gender (Plural)

    Let´s see how the passive participle "čítaný" (from the verb čítať - to read) changes with different nouns.

    Noun Singular Plural
    kniha (f.) - a book číta kniha čítaknihy
    list (m.) - a letter číta list číta listy
    autor (m.) - an author číta autor čítaautori
    písmo (n.) - a handwriting číta písmo číta písma

    enlightenedAll of the passive participles are declined accoridng to the adjective model "pekný".

    Examples

    Present tense Passive participle
    Muž stavia dom. (A man builds a house.) stavaný dom (a builded house)
    Dievča kreslí cestu. (A girl draws a way.) kreslená cesta (a drawn way)
    On volá číslo od Žanety. (He calls the number from Žaneta.) volané číslo (a called number)

     

    Now, let´s see if you understood this topic and make our exercise!