• Slovak grammar
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  • 1 Slovak cases [0/3]
  • 2 Slovak sentence structure [0/2]
  • 3 Slovak nouns [0/5]
  • 4 Slovak adjectives [0/8]
  • 5 Slovak pronouns [0/11]
  • 6 Slovak numerals [0/3]
  • 7 Slovak verbs [0/17]
  • 8 Slovak prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Slovak adverbs [0/5]
  • In this lesson we will introduce you all the 12 models of Slovak nouns. The models help us to create a correct plural form. Also, we decline the nouns according to their models. So let´s get started!

    Each out of 3 genders has 4 basic models:

    masculine gender feminine gender

    neutral gender

    chlap (a man) žena (a woman) mesto (a town)
    hrdina (a hero) ulica (a street) srdce (a heart) 
    dub (an oak) dlaň (a palm) vysvedčenie (a report)
    stroj (a machine) kosť (a bone) dievča (a girl)


    Now, we will show you how all of the models are declined using 6 cases, both in singular and plural form.

    Masculine gender and its models

    Masculine nouns are divided into 2 groups:

    1. living (people of masculine gender OR animals acting like humans (usually used in poets), usually ending with -o or -a or ending on consonants) = the models are chlap and hrdina

    2. non-living (animals or things, endings of the words with consonants, but explained specifically for each model) = the models dub and stroj

    As you could see from the table above, there are 4 models of masculine gender. Let's have a look at all of them:

    Chlap

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative chlap chlap-i
    Genitive chlap-a chlap-ov
    Dative chlap-ovi chlap-om
    Accusative chlap-a chlap-ov
    Local chlap-ovi chlap-och
    Instrumental chlap-om chlap-mi

    Words that follow this declination: 

    • Only living masculine nouns ending with -o (dedo, oco, Jano...) or other consonants (priateľ, brat, otec...)
    • N, pl. can also end with -ovia (synovia, dedovia, potomkovia) or -ia (bratia, učitelia...)
    • animals are also declined according to chlap, but only in singular!

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    Hrdina

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative hrdin-a hrdin-ovia
    Genitive hrdin-u hrdin-ov
    Dative hrdin-ovi hrdin-om
    Accusative hrdin-u hrdin-ov
    Local hrdin-ovi hrdin-och
    Instrumental hrdin-om hrdin-ami


    Words that follow this declination: 

    • Living masculine words ending with -a. (futbalista, hokejista, cyklista...


    Dub

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative dub dub-y
    Genitive dub-a dub-ov
    Dative dub-u dub-om
    Accusative dub dub-y
    Local dub-e dub-och
    Instrumental dub-om dub-mi


    Words that follow this declination: 

    • Non-living masculine nouns ending with hard or bilabial consonant: dom, strom, potok, skutok...

    • Animal nouns only in plural form! (ending with a hard or neutral consonant): had, vlk, lev...

     

    Stroj

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative stroj stroj-e
    Genitive stroj-a stroj-ov
    Dative stroj-u stroj-om
    Accusative stroj stroj-e
    Local stroj-i stroj-och
    Instrumental stroj-om stroj-mi


    Words that follow this declination: 

    • Non-living nouns, ending with soft consonant: papier, kameň, dážď
    • Animal nouns ending with soft consonant: ďateľ, medveď, mravec


    Feminine gender and its models

    We can divide the nouns of feminine gender into 2 groups:

    ending with -a žena hard or bilabial consonant before -a hlava, ruka, noha
      ulica soft consonant before -a tabuľa, schôdza, ruža

     

    and

    ending with consonant dlaň N, pl. is ending with -e päsť, pieseň, loď
      kosť N, pl. is ending with -i krv, noc, nenávisť

     

    Žena

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative žen-a žen-y
    Genitive žen-y žien enlightened
    Dative žen-e žen-ám
    Accusative žen-u žen-y
    Local žen-e žen-ách
    Instrumental žen-ou žen-ami


    Ulica

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative ulic-a ulic-e
    Genitive ulic-e ulíc enlightened
    Dative ulic-i ulic-iam
    Accusative ulic-u ulic-e
    Local ulic-i ulic-iach
    Instrumental ulic-ou ulic-ami


    Dlaň

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative dlaň dlan-e
    Genitive dlan-e dlan-í
    Dative dlan-i dlan-iam
    Accusative dlaň dlan-e
    Local dlan-i dlan-iach
    Instrumental dlaň-ou dlaň-ami


    Kosť

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative kosť kost-i
    Genitive kost-i kost-í
    Dative kost-i kost-iam
    Accusative kosť kost-i
    Local kost-i kost-iach
    Instrumental kosť-ou kosť-ami


    Neutral gender and its models

    Mesto

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative mest-o mest-á
    Genitive mest-a miest enlightened
    Dative mest-u mest-ám
    Accusative mest-o mest-á
    Local mest-e mest-ách
    Instrumental mest-om mest-ami


    Words that follow this declination: 

    • words ending with -o (auto, jablko...)
    • words ending with -on (epiteton)
    • word ending with -um (múzeum, ópium, koloseum...)


    Srdce

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative srdc-e srdc-ia
    Genitive srdc-a sŕdc enlightened
    Dative srdc-u srdc-iam
    Accusative srdc-e srdc-ia
    Local srdc-i srdc-iach
    Instrumental srdc-om srdc-iami

    Words that follow this declination: 

    • words ending on -e (vajce, more, pole)

    Vysvedčenie

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative vysvedčen-ie vysvedčen-ia
    Genitive vysvedčen-ia vysvedčen-í
    Dative vysvedcčen-iu vysvedčen-iam
    Accusative vysvedčen-ie vysvedčen-ia
    Local vysvedčen-í vysvedčen-iach
    Instrumental vysvedčen-ím vysvedčen-iami

    Words that follow this declination: 

    • ending with -ie (plávanie, surfovanie, športovanie)


    Dievča

    Declination table
    Case Singular Plural
    Nominative dievč-a dievč-atá/-ence
    Genitive dievč-aťa dievč-at/-eniec
    Dative dievč-aťu dievč-atám/-encom
    Accusative dievč-a dievč-atá/-ence
    Local dievč-ati dievč-atách/-encoch
    Instrumental dievč-aťom dievč-atami/-encami

    Words that follow this declination: 

    • words ending with -a (šťeňa, mláďa, knieža)
    • words ending with -ä (žriebä, holúbä, plemä)

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