• Slovak grammar
  • 1 Slovak cases [0/3]
  • 2 Slovak sentence structure [0/2]
  • 3 Slovak nouns [0/5]
  • 4 Slovak adjectives [0/8]
  • 5 Slovak pronouns [0/11]
  • 6 Slovak numerals [0/3]
  • 7 Slovak verbs [0/17]
  • 8 Slovak prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Slovak adverbs [0/5]
  • In Slovak language we generally use only one kind of past tense - the simple past tense. Let's have a look at some of the rules to follow. 

    When to use the simple past tense

    The simple past is used in different situations in the past:

    • finished actions
    • states
    • or habits

    often used with the words:

    • yesterday - včera
    • last week - minulý týždeň
    • at 2 o'clock - o druhej
    • in 2003 - v 2003


    How to create the past tense

    The past tense is formed by changing the suffix  -ť of the infinitive. The suffix depends on the gender and number:

    • -l in masculine gender (písa-ť = písa-l)
    • -la in feminine gender (kresli-ť = kresli-la)
    • -lo in neutral gender (chodi-ť = chodi-lo)
    • -li in plural (vari-ť = vari-li)


    enlightenedHowever, the first and second person in singular and plural  "I" (ja), "you" (ty, vy), "we" (my) need an auxiliary verb as well.

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som + verb my sme + verb
    2. ty si + verb vy ste + verb
    3. on, ona, ono - verb oni - verb


    Study this lesson together with a teacher

    Studying on your own is not effective since nobody guides you and you do not receive any feedback. Ask help from one of our professional teachers!

    Get a free trial lesson!
    View teachers

    Regular conjugation in past tense

    Let´s conjugate the verb to read - čítať as an example.

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som čítal (m.), ja som čítala (f.) my sme písali
    2. ty si čítal (m.), ty si čítala (f.) vy ste písali
    3 on čítal (m.), ona čítala (f.), ono čítalo (n.) oni písali

    Here are some example phrases:

    • Magda napísala list. = Magda wrote the letter.
    • My sme kričali. = We shouted.
    • Vy ste prišli. = You came.
    • Ja som plakal. = I cried.


    Irregular conjugation of "byť" in past tense

    The verb "byť" (to be) is an irregular verb. Here is how we conjugate it in past tense:

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som bol (m.), ja som bola (f.) my sme boli
    2. ty si bol (m.), ty si bola (f.) vy ste boli
    3. on bol (m.), ona bola (f.), ono bolo (n.) oni boli

    Example phrases:

    • Ja som bola doma. = I was at home.
    • Dievča bolo v meste. = The girl was in the city.
    • Priatelia, vy ste boli na oslave? = Friends, you were at the party?
    • Ja a moji rodičia sme boli v Španielsku. = Me and my parents were in Spain.

    You can practice you skills with the exercises!