• Slovak grammar
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  • 3 Slovak nouns [0/5]
  • 4 Slovak adjectives [0/8]
  • 5 Slovak pronouns [0/11]
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  • 7 Slovak verbs [0/17]
  • 8 Slovak prepositions [0/2]
  • 9 Slovak adverbs [0/5]
  • Slovak past tense

    In Slovak language we generally use only one kind of past tense - the simple past tense. Let's have a look at some of the rules to follow. 

    When to use the simple past tense

    The simple past is used in different situations in the past:

    • finished actions
    • states
    • or habits

    often used with the words:

    • yesterday - včera
    • last week - minulý týždeň
    • at 2 o'clock - o druhej
    • in 2003 - v 2003


    How to create the past tense

    The past tense is formed by changing the suffix  -ť of the infinitive. The suffix depends on the gender and number:

    • -l in masculine gender (písa-ť = písa-l)
    • -la in feminine gender (kresli-ť = kresli-la)
    • -lo in neutral gender (chodi-ť = chodi-lo)
    • -li in plural (vari-ť = vari-li)


    enlightenedHowever, the first and second person in singular and plural  "I" (ja), "you" (ty, vy), "we" (my) need an auxiliary verb as well.

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som + verb my sme + verb
    2. ty si + verb vy ste + verb
    3. on, ona, ono - verb oni - verb


    Regular conjugation in past tense

    Let´s conjugate the verb to read - čítať as an example.

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som čítal (m.), ja som čítala (f.) my sme písali
    2. ty si čítal (m.), ty si čítala (f.) vy ste písali
    3 on čítal (m.), ona čítala (f.), ono čítalo (n.) oni písali

    Here are some example phrases:

    • Magda napísala list. = Magda wrote the letter.
    • My sme kričali. = We shouted.
    • Vy ste prišli. = You came.
    • Ja som plakal. = I cried.


    Irregular conjugation of "byť" in past tense

    The verb "byť" (to be) is an irregular verb. Here is how we conjugate it in past tense:

    Person Singular Plural
    1. ja som bol (m.), ja som bola (f.) my sme boli
    2. ty si bol (m.), ty si bola (f.) vy ste boli
    3. on bol (m.), ona bola (f.), ono bolo (n.) oni boli

    Example phrases:

    • Ja som bola doma. = I was at home.
    • Dievča bolo v meste. = The girl was in the city.
    • Priatelia, vy ste boli na oslave? = Friends, you were at the party?
    • Ja a moji rodičia sme boli v Španielsku. = Me and my parents were in Spain.

    You can practice you skills with the exercises!


    Exercise about Slovak past tense

    Drag the text exercise on conjugation of to be in past tense

    Fill in the blanks exercise on past tense