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In Slovak language, many verbs have two forms: perfective and imperfective. Let's have a look at what it means and how we differentiate them!
Here are some examples:
|put shoes on||obuť sa||obúvať sa|
Perfective verbs do not exist in present tense. They have just future or past form. To express the present time, we use perfective verbs.
For example the verb "I eat":
najedol som sa (perfective, past tense) - jem (imperfective, present tense) - najem sa (perfective, future tense)
Very often the perfective verb is a finishing phase of imperfective verb.
For example the verb "to put the clothes on":
obliekať sa (imperfective) -> obliecť sa (perfective)
"obliecť sa" is a finishing phase of "obliekať sa" and it is used when you finished eating.
As you can see, the perfective and imperfective verbs are similar. However, there is no exact rule on how to create these forms. Some are created by adding a prefix or a suffix (písať - napísať), some have an extra consonant (umývať - umyť)and some completely change their word base (hľadať - nájsť).
We will show you how the perfective verbs work in practice.
All of the actions were finished.
Here are the examples of the same sentences, but with the actions that have not been finished yet, or we do not know when they will be finished.
And now, we will provide you with a list of vocabulary of some useful perfective and imperfective verbs.
|to learn||naučiť sa||učiť sa|
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