• English grammar
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  • 1 English alphabet
  • 2 English pronunciation and phonetics [0/3]
  • 3 English articles [0/9]
  • 4 English pronouns [0/39]
  • 4.1 English personal pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.2 English impersonal pronouns (it, there, ...) [0/4]
  • 4.3 English object pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.4 English possessive pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.5 English reflexive pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.6 English reciprocal pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.7 English demonstrative pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.8 English relative pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.9 English indefinite pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.10 English interrogative pronouns [0/4]
  • 5 English nouns [0/16]
  • 6 English adjectives [0/38]
  • 6.1 Adjectives of quality in English [0/4]
  • 6.2 Demonstrative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.4 Quantity adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.5 Interrogative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in English [0/8]
  • 6.7 Comparatives and superlatives [0/10]
  • 7 English adverbs [0/18]
  • 7.1 Position of adverbs in English [0/2]
  • 7.2 Adverbs of manner in English [0/2]
  • 7.3 Adverbs of place in English [0/2]
  • 7.4 Adverbs of time in English [0/2]
  • 7.5 Adverbs of quantity in English [0/2]
  • 7.6 Adverbs of frequency in English [0/2]
  • 7.7 Adverbs of degree in English [0/2]
  • 7.8 Adverbs of probability and certainty in English [0/2]
  • 7.9 Adverbs of opinion and observation in English [0/2]
  • 8 English prepositions [0/12]
  • 9 English verbs [0/122]
  • 9.1 Present tenses in English [0/29]
  • Fill in the correct present tense in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise about all present tenses in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Mixed present tenses exercise in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Practice all the English present tenses (Score -/-)Free
  • 9.1.1 Present simple tense in English [0/5]
  • 9.1.2 Present continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.3 Present simple vs present continuous in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.4 Present perfect tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.5 Present perfect continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.6 Difference past simple and present perfect in English [0/4]
  • 9.2 Past tenses in English [0/20]
  • 9.3 Future tenses in English [0/21]
  • 9.4 Auxiliary verbs in English [0/9]
  • 9.5 Present participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.6 Past participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.7 Modal verbs in English [0/11]
  • 9.8 Phrasal verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.9 Regular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.10 Irregular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.11 Gerund (-ing form) in English [0/8]
  • 9.12 Infinitive verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.13 Imperative in English [0/2]
  • 9.14 Reported speech in English [0/2]
  • 9.15 Active and passive voice in English [0/2]
  • 10 English conditionals [0/20]
  • In this chapter the English conditionals will be explained. In the different subchapters the different types of conditionals are explained. Conditionals are used to describe a speculation. 

    Definition and usage of conditional sentences in English

    The conditionals in English are used to express speculation. They refer to an action that could happen, to something that may have happened or to something that is expected to happen. 

    In English there are five types of conditionals. The table below shows you the different conditionals and when they are used.

    Type of conditional  Usage Verb tense of the condition ('if') Verb tense of the result Example
    Type 0 General facts Present simple Present simple
    • If you heat water, it boils.
    • If it rains, you get wet.
    Type 1 Real or possible situation Present simple Future simple (will)
    • If I see her, I will greet her.
    • If they don't hurry, they will miss the train. 
    Type 2  Hypothetical situation Past simple  Present conditional or present continuous conditional (would + infinitive)
    • If I were taller, I would not wear high heels.
    • If I spoke Spanish, I would be working in Spain. 
    Type 3 Hypothetical situation in the past  Past perfect Perfect conditional
    (would have + past participle)
    • If I had known then what I know now, I would have acted differently.
    • If he had worked harder, he would have earned more money.
    Mixed

    Not real condition of the past with a probable result in the present.

    Situation of the present that could have a consequence in the past.

    Past perfect



    Past simple 

    Present conditional (would + infinitive)

    Perfect conditional (would have + past participle)

    • If I were not scared of mice, I would have picked them up. 
    • If he had worked harder, he would have more money now. 

    Structure of conditional sentences 

    Conditional sentences have two parts and each action depends on the other. The first part of the conditional always starts with 'if'. If a condition, situation or circumstance is true, then a specific result happens. 

    The if-clause can be at the beginning of the sentence:

    If-clause  Result
    If you study you will pass your exams. 
    If he works harder he will earn more money.

    The if-clause can be at the end of the sentence:

    Result If-clause
    You will pass your exams if you study.
    He will earn more money if he works harder

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    1) Affirmative conditionals

    The table below shows the structure of affirmative conditionals. These sentences state truths. Some of the conditionals have a long form and a contracted form. 

    Type of conditional Affirmatives - long form Affirmatives - contracted form
    Type 0
    • If you drop your phone, it breaks.
    • If you eat good, you do not get sick. 
     
    Type 1
    • If I see her, I will say hello. 
    • If he comes, we will talk to him. 
    • If I see her, I'll say hello.
    • If he comes, we'll talk to him.

     

    Type 2
    • If he worked, he would earn money. 
    • If I studied, I would get a good job. 
    • If he worked, he'd earn money.
    • If I studied, I'd get a good job.
    Type 3
    • If I had known you were coming, I would have cleaned the house. 
    • If he had given me the money, I would have paid the dinner. 
    • If I'd known you were coming, I'd have cleaned the house. 
    • If he'd given me the money, I'd have paid the dinner. 
    Mixed 
    • If I were not afraid of heights, I would have climbed the tower. 
    • If she had worked harder, she would have finished the assignment.
    • If I were not afraid of heights, I'd have climbed the tower. 
    • If she'd worked harder, she'd have finished the assignment. 

    2) Negative conditionals 

    The table below shows the structure of the negative conditionals. These sentences state falsity. Some sentences have a long form and a contracted form. 

    Type of conditional Negatives - long form Negatives - contracted form
    Type 0
    • If you do not drop your phone, it does not break.
    • If you do not eat good, you get sick. 
    • If you don't drop your phone, it doesn't break. 
    • If you don't eat good, you get sick. 
    Type 1
    • If I do not see her, I will not say hello. 
    • If he does not come, we will not talk to him. 
    • If I don't see her, I won't say hello. 
    • If he doesn't come, we won't talk to him.
    Type 2
    • If he did not work, he would not earn money. 
    • If I did not study, I would not get a good job. 
    • If he didn't work, he wouldn't earn money. 
    • If I didn't study, I wouldn't get a good job.
    Type 3
    • If I had not known you were coming, I would not have cleaned the house. 
    • If he had not given me the money, I would not have paid the dinner. 
    • If I hadn't known you were coming, I wouldn't have cleaned the house. 
    • If he hadn't given me the money, I wouldn't have paid the dinner. 
    Mixed
    • If I were not afraid of heights, I would have climbed the tower. 
      or
      If I were afraid of heights, I would not have climbed the tower. 
    • If she had not worked harder, she would not have finished the assignment.
    • If I weren't afraid of heights, I would've climbed the tower. 
      or
      If I were afraid of heights, I wouldn't have climbed the tower.
    • If she hadn't worked harder, she wouldn't have finished the assignment. 

    3) Interrogative conditionals

    The following table shows the structure of the conditional interrogatives. 

    Type of conditional Interrogatives
    Type 0
    • If you drop your phone, does it break?
    • Do you not get sick if you eat healthy?

     

    Type 1
    • Will I say hello if I see her?
    • Will we not talk to him when he comes?
    Type 2
    • Would he earn money if he worked?
    • Would I get a good job if I study?

    Type 3

    • Would I have cleaned the house if I knew you were coming?
    • Would I have paid the dinner, if he had given me the money?
       

    Mixed 

    • Would I have climbed the tower, if I were not afraid of heights? 
    • Would she have finished the assignment if she had worked harder?

    Test yourself with the exercises below! 

    Next lessons

    1 Zero conditional in English Learn all about the zero conditionals in English.
    2 First conditional in English Study the first conditional in English with this overview of the structure and usage.
    3 Second conditional in English Learn all about the second conditional in English.
    4 Third conditional in English Learn all about the third conditional in English.