• English grammar
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  • 1 English alphabet
  • 2 English pronunciation and phonetics [0/3]
  • 3 English articles [0/9]
  • 4 English pronouns [0/39]
  • 4.1 English personal pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.2 English impersonal pronouns (it, there, ...) [0/4]
  • 4.3 English object pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.4 English possessive pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.5 English reflexive pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.6 English reciprocal pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.7 English demonstrative pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.8 English relative pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.9 English indefinite pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.10 English interrogative pronouns [0/4]
  • 5 English nouns [0/16]
  • 6 English adjectives [0/38]
  • 6.1 Adjectives of quality in English [0/4]
  • 6.2 Demonstrative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.4 Quantity adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.5 Interrogative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in English [0/8]
  • 6.7 Comparatives and superlatives [0/10]
  • 7 English adverbs [0/18]
  • 7.1 Position of adverbs in English [0/2]
  • 7.2 Adverbs of manner in English [0/2]
  • 7.3 Adverbs of place in English [0/2]
  • 7.4 Adverbs of time in English [0/2]
  • 7.5 Adverbs of quantity in English [0/2]
  • 7.6 Adverbs of frequency in English [0/2]
  • 7.7 Adverbs of degree in English [0/2]
  • 7.8 Adverbs of probability and certainty in English [0/2]
  • 7.9 Adverbs of opinion and observation in English [0/2]
  • 8 English prepositions [0/12]
  • 9 English verbs [0/122]
  • 9.1 Present tenses in English [0/29]
  • Fill in the correct present tense in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise about all present tenses in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Mixed present tenses exercise in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Practice all the English present tenses (Score -/-)Free
  • 9.1.1 Present simple tense in English [0/5]
  • 9.1.2 Present continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.3 Present simple vs present continuous in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.4 Present perfect tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.5 Present perfect continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.6 Difference past simple and present perfect in English [0/4]
  • 9.2 Past tenses in English [0/20]
  • 9.3 Future tenses in English [0/21]
  • 9.4 Auxiliary verbs in English [0/9]
  • 9.5 Present participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.6 Past participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.7 Modal verbs in English [0/11]
  • 9.8 Phrasal verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.9 Regular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.10 Irregular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.11 Gerund (-ing form) in English [0/8]
  • 9.12 Infinitive verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.13 Imperative in English [0/2]
  • 9.14 Reported speech in English [0/2]
  • 9.15 Active and passive voice in English [0/2]
  • 10 English conditionals [0/20]
  • In this chapter the present perfect continuous will be explained. This tense is used for actions that have started in the past, but continue in the present.

    Structure and rules of the present perfect continuous

    To form the present perfect continuous the auxiliary verb 'to have' is used, followed by the participle of the verb 'to be' plus the present participle of the main verb. 

    Examples:

    • We have been dating since 2015. 
    • I have been preparing my wedding since last year. 
    • My mom has been playing tennis since 1997. 

    How the present perfect continuous is formed, depends on whether the sentence is:

    1. Affirmative: expresses the truth of a certain assertion.
    2. Negative: expresses the falsity of a certain assertion. 
    3. Interrogative: expresses a question.

    1. Affirmatives 

    Structure: subject / pronoun + form of the verb 'to have' + 'been' + present participle of the main verb + rest of the sentence

    The table below shows the conjugation of the auxiliary verb 'to have' in combination with the participle of the verb 'to be'. 

    Subject Conjugation of 'to have' + 'been'
    I have been
    You have been
    He / she / it has been
    We have been
    You have been
    They have been 

    Examples:

    • I have been working on this assignment since last week.
    • He has been planning his trip to Spain since last year. 

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    2. Negatives 

    Structure: subject / pronoun + negative form of the verb 'to have' (have not/ has not) + 'been' + present participle of the main verb + rest of the sentence 

    The table below shows the conjugation of the verb 'to have' in combination with the participle of the verb 'to be' in the negative form. 

    Subject Conjugation of 'to have'+ negation + 'been'
    I have not been
    You have not been
    He / she / it has not been
    We have not been
    You have not been
    They have not been

    Examples:

    • I have not been waiting for you. I have just arrived.
    • She has not been cooking all morning, I just saw her at the pool. 

    3. Interrogatives

    Structure: form of the verb 'to have' + subject / pronoun + 'been' + present participle of the main verb + rest of the sentence + question mark

    Subject Interrogative
    I Have I been ... ?
    You Have you been ... ?
    He / she / it Has he / she / it been ... ?
    We Have we been ... ?
    You Have you been ... ?
    They Have they been ... ? 

    Examples:

    • Have you been crying? You look sad. 
    • Have you been shopping all morning?

    Usage of the present perfect continuous 

    The present perfect continuous is used to refer to an event or action that happened in the past and is still going on in the present or recently stopped. The table below shows the different situations in which the present perfect continuous is used. 

    Situation Examples
    You want to express the idea of an activity in progress until recently or until the time of speaking.
    • Have you been working all day? You look tired. 
    • She's been writing the book since 2015 and at last it's finished.
    You want to talk about an event or action that started in the past, but is still going on. 
    • Martina has been waiting for over an hour. 
    • He has been working at the supermarket for four years. 

    Difference between since and for

    The present perfect continuous refers to a non-specific time period, so it is usually accompanied by the following signal words:

    • For: is used to define the duration of an action or event.
      Examples: for six years, for a week, for a month, for two hours.
       
    • Since: is used to define the starting point of an action or event. 
      Examples: since this morning, since 2015, since yesterday. 

    Test your knowledge of the present perfect continuous with the exercises below!