• English grammar
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  • 1 English alphabet
  • 2 English pronunciation and phonetics [0/3]
  • 3 English articles [0/9]
  • 4 English pronouns [0/39]
  • 4.1 English personal pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.2 English impersonal pronouns (it, there, ...) [0/4]
  • 4.3 English object pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.4 English possessive pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.5 English reflexive pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.6 English reciprocal pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.7 English demonstrative pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.8 English relative pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.9 English indefinite pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.10 English interrogative pronouns [0/4]
  • 5 English nouns [0/16]
  • 6 English adjectives [0/38]
  • 6.1 Adjectives of quality in English [0/4]
  • 6.2 Demonstrative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.4 Quantity adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.5 Interrogative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in English [0/8]
  • 6.7 Comparatives and superlatives [0/10]
  • 7 English adverbs [0/18]
  • 7.1 Position of adverbs in English [0/2]
  • 7.2 Adverbs of manner in English [0/2]
  • 7.3 Adverbs of place in English [0/2]
  • 7.4 Adverbs of time in English [0/2]
  • 7.5 Adverbs of quantity in English [0/2]
  • 7.6 Adverbs of frequency in English [0/2]
  • 7.7 Adverbs of degree in English [0/2]
  • 7.8 Adverbs of probability and certainty in English [0/2]
  • 7.9 Adverbs of opinion and observation in English [0/2]
  • 8 English prepositions [0/12]
  • 9 English verbs [0/122]
  • 9.1 Present tenses in English [0/29]
  • Fill in the correct present tense in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise about all present tenses in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Mixed present tenses exercise in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Practice all the English present tenses (Score -/-)Free
  • 9.1.1 Present simple tense in English [0/5]
  • 9.1.2 Present continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.3 Present simple vs present continuous in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.4 Present perfect tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.5 Present perfect continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.6 Difference past simple and present perfect in English [0/4]
  • 9.2 Past tenses in English [0/20]
  • 9.3 Future tenses in English [0/21]
  • 9.4 Auxiliary verbs in English [0/9]
  • 9.5 Present participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.6 Past participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.7 Modal verbs in English [0/11]
  • 9.8 Phrasal verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.9 Regular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.10 Irregular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.11 Gerund (-ing form) in English [0/8]
  • 9.12 Infinitive verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.13 Imperative in English [0/2]
  • 9.14 Reported speech in English [0/2]
  • 9.15 Active and passive voice in English [0/2]
  • 10 English conditionals [0/20]
  • This chapter will explain the third conditional in English. This conditional is used to express a hypothetical situation of the past. This situation is a fact of the past but has not happened, but we would like it to have happened. 

    Definition and usage of the third conditional

    The third conditional refers to a situation that is in the past, and is contrary to reality. 

    Situation Example
    Hypothetical situation of the past. 
    • If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.
    • If I had known you were coming I would have bought something to eat.

    Structure of the third conditional

    The third conditional consists of two clauses, the 'if clause' and the 'main clause'. The structure of the third conditional begins with the word 'if' followed by the past perfect tense that establishes the condition, which is the 'if clause'. The 'if clause' is followed by the 'main clause' which describes the result using the perfect continuous conditional or perfect conditional. 

    Structure: If + past perfect + perfect continuous conditional or perfect conditional. 

    If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
    If I had known then what I know now, I would have acted differently.
    If my parents had given me the money, I would have paid the bill.

    enlightenedThe perfect conditional conditional tense has three elements: would + have + past participle 

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    Two rules to remember

    There are two rules that have to be remembered:

    1. 'would' can never appear in the if clause
    2. 'had' can never appear before 'have'.

    Mixed conditionals in English

    This type of conditional refers to a time in the past but the situation is ongoing into the present. There are two classes of mixed conditionals.

    Class 1 of mixed conditionals

    This type of mixed conditional sentence refers to an unreal condition in the past with a probable result in the present.

    Structure: If + past perfect + present conditional.

    If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
    If I had worked harder in school, I would have a better job now.
    If you had gone with them in a car,  you would be dead now. 

    Class 2 of mixed conditionals

    This class of mixed conditional sentences refers to an unreal situation in the present with a probable result for something that could have happened in the past

    Structure: If + simple past + perfect conditional.

    If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
    If I wasn't afraid of snakes, I would have touched it. 
    If my English was better, I would have been able to translate your essay. 

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