• English grammar
  • 1 English alphabet
  • 2 English pronunciation and phonetics [0/3]
  • 3 English articles [0/9]
  • 4 English pronouns [0/39]
  • 4.1 English personal pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.2 English impersonal pronouns (it, there, ...) [0/4]
  • 4.3 English object pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.4 English possessive pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.5 English reflexive pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.6 English reciprocal pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.7 English demonstrative pronouns [0/3]
  • 4.8 English relative pronouns [0/4]
  • 4.9 English indefinite pronouns [0/5]
  • 4.10 English interrogative pronouns [0/4]
  • 5 English nouns [0/16]
  • 6 English adjectives [0/38]
  • 6.1 Adjectives of quality in English [0/4]
  • 6.2 Demonstrative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.3 Possessive adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.4 Quantity adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.5 Interrogative adjectives in English [0/4]
  • 6.6 Numeral adjectives in English [0/8]
  • 6.7 Comparatives and superlatives [0/10]
  • 7 English adverbs [0/18]
  • 7.1 Position of adverbs in English [0/2]
  • 7.2 Adverbs of manner in English [0/2]
  • 7.3 Adverbs of place in English [0/2]
  • 7.4 Adverbs of time in English [0/2]
  • 7.5 Adverbs of quantity in English [0/2]
  • 7.6 Adverbs of frequency in English [0/2]
  • 7.7 Adverbs of degree in English [0/2]
  • 7.8 Adverbs of probability and certainty in English [0/2]
  • 7.9 Adverbs of opinion and observation in English [0/2]
  • 8 English prepositions [0/12]
  • 9 English verbs [0/122]
  • 9.1 Present tenses in English [0/29]
  • Fill in the correct present tense in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Exercise about all present tenses in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Mixed present tenses exercise in English (Score -/-)Free
  • Practice all the English present tenses (Score -/-)Free
  • 9.1.1 Present simple tense in English [0/5]
  • 9.1.2 Present continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.3 Present simple vs present continuous in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.4 Present perfect tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.5 Present perfect continuous tense in English [0/4]
  • 9.1.6 Difference past simple and present perfect in English [0/4]
  • 9.2 Past tenses in English [0/20]
  • 9.3 Future tenses in English [0/21]
  • 9.4 Auxiliary verbs in English [0/9]
  • 9.5 Present participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.6 Past participle in English [0/3]
  • 9.7 Modal verbs in English [0/11]
  • 9.8 Phrasal verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.9 Regular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.10 Irregular verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.11 Gerund (-ing form) in English [0/8]
  • 9.12 Infinitive verbs in English [0/3]
  • 9.13 Imperative in English [0/2]
  • 9.14 Reported speech in English [0/2]
  • 9.15 Active and passive voice in English [0/2]
  • 10 English conditionals [0/20]
  • English pronunciation and phonetics


    1. Vowels exercise Score -/-
    2. Consonant exercise Score -/-
    3. Consonant and vowels worksheets Score -/-

    How to pronounce the English vowels, consonants and diphthongs

    The English language has an extensive amount of phonetic sounds and different types of pronunciation acquired through its long history and influences. By learning the most common sounds in the form of vowels and consonants you should be able to pronounce properly most words and letters. 

    1) Vowels chart

    Vowels are part of the speech in the form of sound or a letter. They are pronounced with an open vocal tract. The English vowels are: 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'. The vowel can be pronounced differently in different words, see the table below. 

    Letter Vowel sound  Pronunciation examples
    A /æ/

    Cat, Black, Hat

    A /ɑ:/ Spark, Dark, Arm
    A, E /ə/

    Sofa, Alive, Kingdom

    A, U, O /ɔ:/

    Bored, Horse, Law

    E, I, U /ɜ:/

    Bird, Learn, Casual

    E /i:/ Sheep, See, Eat
    I /i/ Hit, Sit, Ship
    O /əʊ/ Go, Hole, Alone
    O /ɒ/ Rob, Hot, Top
    O, U /u:/

    Blue, Few, Chew, 

    U /ʊ/ Should, Put, Look
    U /ʌ/ One, Cup, Fun

    Study this lesson together with a teacher

    Studying on your own is not effective since nobody guides you and you do not receive any feedback. Ask help from one of our professional teachers!

    Get a free trial lesson!
    View teachers

    2) Consonants chart

    Consonants are part of the speech in the form of a sound. Upon pronouncing them there is a partial air block and not-pronouncing certain letters. In English, their list is quite extensive.

    Letter Consonant sound  Pronunciation examples
    B /b/ Bed, Banana, Book
    CH /tʃ/ Church, Cheese, Watch
    CH /x/ Loch 
    G /g/ August, Give, Grass
    G /ʒ/

    Garage, Casual, Television

    H /h/ Hear, Hand, Hold 
    J /dʒ/ Juice, January, Juggle
    L /,l/ Low, Critical, Little
    M /m/ More, Make, Mother
    N /n/ Knew, Nest, Turn
    N /,n/ Threaten
    N /ŋ/ Song, Finger, King
    P /p/ Pin, Apple, Pause
    R /r/ Responsible, Ring, Rap
    S /s/ Snake, Snow, Sick
    /ʃ/ Show, Shirt, Cash
    T /t/ Transport, Train, Late
    T /ð/ That, Others, There
    T /θ/ Think, Bath, The
    V /v/ View, Very, Cave
    W /w/ Waste, We, Wait
    W /hw/ Wheel 
    X /ɡz/ Examine
    X /ks/ Taxi, Max, Tax
    X /z/ Xenophobic, X-ray
    Z /z/ Result, Maximize

    3) Diphthongs chart

    Diphthongs are vowels that were created by the combination of two vowel sounds with the same syllable. They are very commonly used and vital to learn by heart. 


     Pronunciation examples

    /aɪ/ Buy, Eye, Pie
    /eɪ/ Day, Okay, Pay
    /ɔɪ/ Toy, Boy, Coy
    /ɪə/ Beer, Ear, Dear
    /eə/ Air, Fair, Hair
    /aʊ/ How, Mouth, Cow
    /əʊ/ Phone, Nose, Dose 
    /ʊə/ Sure, Pure, Endure

    Pronunciation rules of the English language

    The consonants (voiced and unvoiced) in English

    In the English language some consonants are voiced and some are unvoiced. The table below shows the unvoiced consonants with their voiced counterparts.

    Unvoiced Voiced
    f v
    th th
    ch g
    p b
    sh j
    t d

    1. The 'th'

    There are two types of 'th', the unvoiced and voiced pronunciation. 

    The 'th' sound will be voiceless at the beginning of a content word. A content word is a word that add a meaning to a sentence, for example nouns, verbs or adjectives. The 'th' is unvoiced in the middle of words when it is before a consonant. The 'th' sound is voiceless when it is at the end of words, except for the word 'with'.

    Examples of the unvoiced 'th':

    • thank, thumb
    • bathtub, toothpick
    • smooth, teeth

    The 'th' is voiced when it is at the beginning of the function word. A function word is a word that doesn't mean a specific action. The 'th' is voiced when it is in the middle of words between two vowels.  The 'th' at the end of the word 'with' is voiced. 

    Examples of the voiced 'th':

    • this, these
    • mother, bathing
    • with

    2. Combination of 'sp' and 'st'

    The examples below show the different pronunciation between the 'sp' and 'st'.

    • sports
    • Spain
    • stick
    • stamp

    3. 'v' and 'w'

    The letters 'v' and 'w' have a different pronunciation, to understand the difference listen to the words below.

    • voice, various, video
    • which, winter, awake

    4. The consonant 'r'

    The rule to learn for the pronunciation of the letter 'r' is:

    • 'r' is voiced when it is before a vowel sound. (grass, asparagus, grapefruit)
    • 'r' is unvoiced when it is before a consonant or at the end of a word. (short, door, dark)

    The vowels in English

    Most English vowels have a long vowel sound and short vowel sound depending on the word. 

    1. The vowel 'a'

    The letter 'a' has a long sound, sounds like 'ei' and a short sound, sounds like 'ah'. 

    • day, way (long sound)
    • cat, dad (short sound)

    In words that include '-ought', '-aught', '-alk' or '-aw', the 'a' sound is pronounced like 'oh'. 

    • talk
    • awkward

    2. The vowel 'e'

    The long sound of the letter 'e' is pronounced as 'ee'. The short sound of the letter 'e' is pronounced as 'eh'.

    • monkey, these (long sound)
    • melt, letter (short sound)

    enlightenedWhen the letter 'Y' is at the end of a word that has more than one syllable and when the letters 'ie' are together, they are pronounced as a long 'e'. For example: lady, funny, believe, piece.

    3. The vowel 'i'

    The long vowel 'i' sounds like 'aiy'. The short vowel 'i' sounds like 'ih'. 

    • ice, iris (long sound)
    • it, ship (short sound)

    enlightenedWhen the letter 'y' is at the end of a word that has one syllable it is pronounced as a long 'i'. For example: my, bye, why.

    4. The vowel 'o'

    The long vowel 'o' sounds like 'ooh'. The short vowel 'o' is pronounced as 'oh'.

    • nose, remote (long sound)
    • stop, box (short sound)

    enlightenedWhen the letter 'o' is followed by another vowel it is still pronounced as 'ooh'. For example: boat, toe.

    5. The vowel 'u'

    The long sound of the vowel 'u' is the pronounced like 'yu'. The short vowel 'u' sounds like 'uh'.

    • cute, music (long sound)
    • cut, butter (short sound)

    enlightenedWhen the letter 'u' is followed by the vowels 'e' or 'i' it is still pronounced as a long vowel 'u'. For example: fruit, clue

    6. The two 'oo' sound

    There are some words in English that have the two 'oo' sound. 

    • boot
    • took
    • book

    enlightenedWhen the letters 'oo' follow the letter 'l', it is pronounced as a short 'u' sound. For example: flood, blood