• Slovak language course for beginners
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  • 1 Slovak alphabet and letters
  • 2 Slovak pronunciation [0/2]
  • 3 Slovak keyboard and how to type Slovak letters [0/3]
  • 4 Greetings and how to say Hello in Slovak [0/3]
  • 5 Introduce yourself in Slovak [0/2]
  • 6 Colours in Slovak [0/3]
  • 7 Numbers and counting in Slovak [0/4]
  • 8 Telling the time in Slovak [0/3]
  • 9 Talk about the weather in Slovak [0/3]
  • 10 Days of the week, months and seasons in Slovak [0/3]
  • 11 Body parts and head parts in Slovak [0/3]
  • 12 Food and drinks in Slovak [0/3]
  • 13 Order food in Slovak [0/3]
  • 14 Express opinions in Slovak [0/3]
  • 15 Feelings and emotions in Slovak [0/2]
  • 16 I love you in Slovak [0/3]
  • 17 Party and how to say Happy Birthday in Slovak [0/2]
  • 18 Asking directions in Slovak [0/2]
  • 19 Travel and transportation related words in Slovak [0/4]
  • 20 At the doctors vocabulary in Slovak [0/4]
  • 21 At the post office in Slovak [0/3]
  • 22 Describe the family in Slovak [0/3]
  • 23 Talking about hobbies in Slovak [0/3]
  • 24 Clothes in Slovak [0/4]
  • 25 House, room, furniture vocabulary in Slovak [0/3]
  • 26 Nature and animals names in Slovak [0/3]
  • 27 School and Classroom vocabulary in Slovak [0/3]
  • 28 Work related vocabulary in Slovak [0/3]
  • 29 Slovak names for countries and languages [0/2]
  • Let's start from the very beginning in learning Slovak language! What is more important than to know the alphabet of the one's language? There are some unique letters which are not appearing in English or any other languages. Together, you will learn 46 letters!

    List of Slovak letters

    Here is the full list of all Slovak letters:

    A, Á, Ä, B, C, Č, D, Ď, DZ, DŽ, E, É, F, G, H, CH, I, Í, J, K, L Ĺ, Ľ, M, N, Ň, O, Ó, Ô, P, Q, R, Ŕ, S, Š, T, Ť, U, Ú, V, W, X, Y, Ý, Z, Ž.

    Letter Pronunciation Example
    A /a/ auto
    Á /a:/ láska
    Ä /æ/, /ɛ/ bábätko
    B /b/ babka
    C /c/, /ts/ citrón
    Č /tʃ/ čučoriedka
    D /d/ darček
    Ď /ɟ/ ďateľ
    DZ /dz/ mosadz
    /dʒ/ džavotať
    E /e/, /ɛ/ elektrina
    É /e/, /ɛ/ krém
    F /f/ fialka
    G /g/ gram
    H /h/ hlava
    CH /x/ chlieb
    I /i/ ihla
    Í /i:/ kríza
    J /j/ jablko
    K /k/ krava
    L /l/ lep
    Ĺ /l:/ dĺžeň
    Ľ /ʎ/ ľalia
    M /m/ mama
    N /n/ noha
    Ň /ɲ/ zbraň
    O /o/ opica
    Ó /o:/ ópium
    Ô /uo/ stôl
    P /p/ papier
    Q /kv/ squash
    R /r/ robot
    Ŕ /r:/ tŕň
    S /s/ soľ
    Š /ʃ/ šaty
    T /t/ tiger
    Ť /c/ ťava
    U /u/ uhol
    Ú /u:/ ústav
    V /v/ vlasy
    W /v/ wafle
    X /ks/ xylofón
    Y /i/ nohy
    Ý /i:/ dlhý
    Z /z/ Zuzana
    Ž /ʒ/ žatva


    We can also say, that the Slovak alphabet is divided into 3 groups:

    • simple: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z
    • created in combination with diacritics*
    • consisting of two letters: dz, dž, ch

    *created in combination with diacritics:

    • the acute mark ("dĺžeň"): á, é, í, ĺ, ó, ŕ, ú, ý
    • the caron ("mäkčeň" or softener): č, ď, ľ, ň, š, ť, ž
    • the umlaut (two dots, or "prehláska"): ä
    • the circumflex ("vokáň"): ô
       

    Slovak vowels, consonants and special letters

    As in any other languages, Slovak alphabet is also divided to vowels and consonants. There are 14 vowels and 32 consonants.

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    Slovak vowels

    14 vowels consist of short, long and special ones.

    • the short vowels: a, e, i, o, u, y, ä
    • the long vowels: á, é, í, ó, ú, ý
    • the diphthong: ô (as well as "ia", "ie", "iu")

    As you could see from the list above, long vowels are pronounced the same way as the short ones, just for a little bit longer time.

    Slovak consonants

    32 consonants are divided into 3+ groups as well:

    • soft ("mäkké"): ď, ť, ň, ľ, c, j, dz, č, dž, š, ž
    • hard ("tvrdé"): d, t, n, l, h, ch, k, g
    • ambiguous ("obojaké"): b, m, p, r, s, v, z, f

    +special without a group: ĺ, q, ŕ, w, x

    Special letters

    As we indicated at the beginning, there are some special letters, which do not appear in English alphabet. 

    • "ä" is pronounced as wide "e" and is used only in a few words
    • "ô" is pronounced as "uo" and is also used very rarely
    • "ch" sound is used very often, and is pronounced as in the word "loch", very similar to "h"
                    
      number five  kon   boy
    five           a horse a boy      
    päť kôň chlapec

    The pronunciation of the Slovak letters will be explained in the topic of next lesson.

    Let´s practice what you learned!