Passive voice in Croatian

What is the difference between active and passive voice?

If a subject of a sentence acts upon an object, the sentence is written in the active form. 

Ona čita knjigu. - She reads a book.

An alternative to this sentence structure is the passive voice. The passive voice means that the action is performed over the subject. 

Knjiga je pročitana. - The book is read. 

Formation of the passive voice

In Croatian language the passive voice is formed in two ways:

enlightenedThe auxiliary verb "biti" in any active tense form + passive verbal adjective

Brod je bio izgrađen. - The boat was build. (In the past tense)

Ona će biti pohvaljena. - She will be praised.

enlightenedUsing the particle "se" next to the verb in it's active form

Brod se gradi. - The boat is being build. 

Voda se prolijeva. - The water is being spilled. 

Conjugation of the passive voice

As an example of the conjugation for every tense is chosen the verb "graditi" (to build) in the 3rd person singular. Other persons follow corresponding tense conjugation rules.

Present tense

Ova kuća biva građena. - This house is being build.

Future I. tense

Ova kuća će biti građena. - This house will be build.

Future II. tense

Ova kuće bude građena. - This house will be build.

Past tense

Ova kuća je bila građena. - This house was build.

Imperfect tense

Ova kuća bijaše građena. - This house was build.

Pluperfect tense

Ova kuća bijaše bila građena prije nego sam se ja rodio. - This house had been build, before I was born.

Aorist tense

Ova kuća bi građena u 19. stoljeću. - This house was build in 19th century.


yesRemember the formation of the passive voice and remember to follow the general conjugation rules.