Demonstrative pronouns or pokazne zamjenice are pronouns used to demonstrate who and what is being referred to, for example 'this' and 'that'.

In Croatian language they respond to questions koji?, kakav?, kolik?

Types of demonstrative pronouns

There are five factors that influence demonstrative pronoun's type in Croatian language. They can change their form based on:

  • questions (koji, kakav kolik?) 
  • distance 
  • gender 
  • number 
  • case 

Regarding the distance of the object from the subject there are three types of demonstrative pronouns based on the fact if:

  • the object is near to the person who speaks
  • the object is near to the second person who makes part of the conversation
  • or the object is far from both speakers

 

Chart of demonstrative pronouns 

In the tables below there are lists of pronouns in masculine and feminine gender based on gender, distance and questions they are responding to.

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Masculine gender

  near to 1st speaker near to 2nd speaker far from both speakers
koji? ovaj taj onaj
kakav? ovakav takav onakav
kolik? ovolik tolik onolik

 

Examples

  • Ovaj auto je lijep. - This car is beautiful.
  • Taj momak je vrijedan. - That boy is diligent.
  • Onaj kauč je lijepši. - That sofa over there is more beautiful. 

 

Feminine gender

  near to 1st speaker near to 2nd speaker far from both speakers
koja? ova ta ona
kakva? ovakva takva onakva
kolika? ovolika tolika onolika

 

Examples

  • Ova cura je lijepa. - This girl is beautiful.
  • Ta kuća je daleko. - That house is far away.
  • Ona žena govori istinu. -That woman over there speaks the truth.

 

Declension of demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns must be declined in all cases besides the vocative case. As an example is taken the pronoun "ovaj"

Singular

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ovaj ova ovo
Genitive ovog ove  ovog
Dative ovom ovoj ovom
Accusative ovog ovu ovo
Vocative x x x
Locative ovom ovoj ovom
Instrumental ovim ovom ovom

 

Plural

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ovi ove ova
Genitive ovih ovih ovih
Dative ovim ovim ovim
Accusative ove ove ova
Vocative x x x
Locative ovim ovim ovim
Instrumental ovim ovim ovim

 

Remember for this type of pronouns it is always necessary to do declension in gender, number and case, and they also depend on the distance or asked question. Try our exercises to master this lesson!