• Estonian course for beginners
  • 1 Estonian alphabet
  • 2 Estonian pronunciation
  • 3 Estonian keyboard and how to type letters
  • 4 How to say hello in Estonian [0/2]
  • 5 Introducing yourself in Estonian [0/2]
  • 6 Telling the time in Estonian [0/2]
  • 7 Numbers and counting in Estonian [0/3]
  • 8 Days of the week, months and seasons in Estonian [0/3]
  • 9 Describing people and characters in Estonian [0/2]
  • 10 Describing the family in Estonian [0/3]
  • 11 Colours in Estonian [0/3]
  • 12 Body parts in Estonian [0/3]
  • 13 Clothes in Estonian [0/3]
  • 14 Animal names in Estonian [0/3]
  • 15 Order food in Estonian [0/3]
  • 16 Birthday wishes and congratulations in Estonian [0/2]
  • 17 Asking for directions in Estonian [0/3]
  • 18 Grocery shopping in Estonian [0/3]
  • 19 Expressing feelings in Estonian [0/2]
  • 20 How to say I love you in Estonian [0/2]
  • 21 Talking about hobbies in Estonian [0/2]
  • 22 Talk about the weather in Estonian [0/2]
  • 23 Describing your home in Estonian [0/2]
  • 24 Travel and transportation in Estonian [0/2]
  • 25 Business words in Estonian [0/2]
  • Estonian pronunciation

    Now that you have learned how to pronounce Estonian letters we will continue with pronouncing the words. Fortunately, it is quite easy because Estonian is straightforward - we pronounce most of the words the same way that they are written. There is one big exception though which can be confusing at first - the vowel length.  

    Estonian vowels

    There are 9 vowels in Estonian: A, E, I, O, U, Õ, Ä, Ö, Ü.

    The duration of vowel sounds can be short, long or overlong. A short vowel is always written with one single letter; long and overlong both consist of two identical letters. It is easy to differentiate short from long/overlong, but there is no written distinction between long and overlong vowels. Overlong vowels often change the pitch or stress of the syllable as well as the duration and this can give a completely new meaning to the word.

    For example: 

    Short Long Overlong
    Sada (hundred) Saada (send!) `Saada (to get)

    In phonetic transcription the overlong sound is indicated with a ` before the syllable. However, this is not used in ordinary written language.


    Estonian consonants


    Consonants can also have three different lengths. Short are written with one letter, long and overlong with double letters. 

    Short Long Overlong
    Lina (linen) Linna (the town's) `Linna (to town)
    Kala (fish) Kalla (Calla) `Kalla (pour!)

    However, stop consonants (plosives) act differently:

    • Short length: g, b, d
    • Long length: k, p, t
    • Overlong length: kk, pp, tt
    Short Long Overlong
    Lugu (story) Luku (lock's) Lukku (to lock)
    Kabi (hoof) Kapi (closet's) Kappi (to the closet)



    In some words, the consonants l n s t are softened or palatalized with a slight i- or j- (English y) type sound before the consonant. It is also not indicated in the written language but with the wrong pronunciation the meaning of the word may be affected.


    • Palk (with a normal unsoftened l) - wagelogorwage
    • Pal'k (with a softened l) - log 


    Letter H

    H at the beginning of a word is very weak; almost silent. 

    In front of consonants and at the end of words it is quite strong. (like the German ch in 'Nacht')



    Estonian has a lot of diphthongs (sequence of two vowels that belong to one syllable). These include ae ai ao au ea ei eo iu oa oe oi õe äe and so on. Each of the two vowels is pronounced clearly, but not as if they were in separate syllables. 


    • Laud - table
    • Hea - good
    • Õun - apple


    The accent

    The accent is normally on the first syllable. However there are some exceptions such as aitäh 'thanks' and sõbranna 'friend'. In many loanwords from other languages the original accent has been borrowed as well: professor, mehaanik (mechanic).

    Still the accented syllable does not dominate the pronunciation of a word so markedly as it does in English.


    enlightened It's important to pronounce the words correctly so that the meaning of the word won't change.


    yes Now you know the basic rules of pronunciation. Continue to the next lesson to keep learning Estonian!