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Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing. In a sentence, they can act as a modifier or a predicative.
While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, in Estonian an adjective should agree in number with the noun. Also, in 10 cases out of 14 the adjective has to be declined accordingly.
There are 5 common suffixes that can be used to create new adjectives from nouns, adverbs or verbs.
1) References to material, place, time, manner:
-ne: This derivative suffix is added to a noun or adverb and corresponds to -en, -ful, -y in English.
2) Different characteristics:
-line: This is usually added to the genitive form of a noun.
|dark hair||tumedad juuksed||dark-haired||tumedajuukseline|
-lik: mainly added to the noun
-kas: added to the genitive form the of the noun
3) Lack of certain traits:
-tu: This is added to the genitive form of the noun or to the -ma infinitive of the verb.
Adjectives can also end in various other suffixes:
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison:
In Estonian, the comparative is constructed by adding the suffix -m to the genitive form.
Some adjectives, which have two syllables in the genitive form and end in -a or -u change to -e- instead before the comparative ending -m.
Adjectives that end in -ke(ne) usually lose this suffix and have the vowel -e- before the -m ending.
The superlative is formed by simply placing the word kõige 'most' before the comparative.
In addition to the superlative form with kõige, for some adjectives there is an alternative form with the ending -im or -em.
The adjective hea 'good' is irregular. Comparative - parem 'better'. Superlative - parim 'best'.
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