Present perfect (täisminevik) in Estonian
Like in English, the present perfect is used to express having done something in the past. E.g I have visited Portugal many times.
How to form the present perfect in Estonian?
The present perfect (täisminevik in Estonian) is composed of the present tense form of the auxiliary verb olema 'to be' and the -nud participle.
Example: verb joonistama 'to draw'
|I have drawn||Ma olen joonistanud|
|You have drawn||Sa oled joonistanud|
|He/She has drawn||Ta on joonistanud|
|We have drawn||Me oleme joonistanud|
|You have drawn||Te olete joonistanud|
|They have drawn||Nad on joonistanud|
In some expressions and in poetry, the helping verb olema 'to be' may be omitted..
- Kes palju käinud, see palju näinud. --- He who has travelled much, has seen much.
The negative form
The negative form of the present perfect consists of ei ole (or pole) and -nud participle, for all persons in the singular and plural.
|I have not drawn||Ma ei ole joonistanud||Ma pole joonistanud|
|You have not drawn||Sa ei ole joonistanud||Sa pole joonistanud|
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