The past perfect (enneminevik) in Estonian
The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. E.g I had read the book before I watched the movie.
How to form the past perfect in Estonian?
The past perfect (enneminevik in Estonian) is composed of the simple past form of the auxiliary verb olema 'to be' and the -nud participle.
Example: verb naerma 'to laugh'
|I had laughed||Ma olin naernud|
|You had laughed||Sa olid naernud|
|He/She had laughed||Ta oli naernud|
|We had laughed||Me olime naernud|
|You had laughed||Te olite naernud|
|They had laughed||Nad olid naernud|
The negative form
The negative form of the past perfect tense consists of ei olnud (or polnud) and -nud participle. It is same for all persons in both singular and plural.
|I had not laughed||Ma ei olnud naernud||Ma polnud naernud|
|You had not laughed||Sa ei olnud naernud||Sa polnud naernud|
Practice conjugating the verbs in past perfect with our exercises!
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