• Estonian grammar
  • 1 Estonian sentence structure [0/2]
  • 2 Estonian nouns [0/3]
  • 3 Estonian pronouns [0/3]
  • 4 Estonian cases [0/11]
  • 5 Estonian verbs [0/8]
  • 6 Estonian adjectives [0/1]
  • 7 Estonian prepositions and postpositions [0/1]
  • 8 Estonian adverbs [0/1]
  • The past perfect (enneminevik) in Estonian

    The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. E.g I had read the book before I watched the movie.

    How to form the past perfect in Estonian?

    The past perfect (enneminevik in Estonian) is composed of the simple past form of the auxiliary verb olema 'to be' and the -nud participle.

    Example: verb naerma 'to laugh'

    English Estonian
    I had laughed Ma olin naernud
    You had laughed Sa olid naernud
    He/She had laughed Ta oli naernud
    We had laughed Me olime naernud
    You had laughed Te olite naernud
    They had laughed Nad olid naernud


    The negative form

    The negative form of the past perfect tense consists of ei olnud (or polnud) and -nud participle. It is same for all persons in both singular and plural.

    English Estonian  
    I had not laughed Ma ei olnud naernud Ma polnud naernud
    You had not laughed Sa ei olnud naernud Sa polnud naernud


    yes Practice conjugating the verbs in past perfect with our exercises!


    Exercise: conjugating verbs in the past perfect