Participles in Estonian
- Exercise: all participles Score -/-
The present (-v) participle
The present participle is used as an adjective, like the English -ing form. E.g kasvav tüdruk 'a growing girl'. It may also be translated as a relative cause. E.g 'a girl who is growing'
It is formed by adding the suffix -v to the stem of the -ma infinitive.
Here are some examples of how the present participle is formed:
|English||-ma infinitive||English||-v participle|
The -nud participle
The -nud participle is used for forming the negative past, present perfect and past perfect tenses. In some instances, it may also be used as an adjective, like in English.
E.g Kulunud riided 'worn-out clothes'
The -nud participle is derived from the stem of the -da inifnitive, by replacing the -da suffix with -nud.
Examples of forming the -nud participle:
|English||-da infinitive||-nud participle|
The -tud participle
The -tud participle corresponds to the past participle in English, which usually ends in -ed, -en or -t. In both Estonian and English, this form can be used as an adjective that describes what has happened to a noun. E.g haavatud sõdur 'wounded soldier'; keelatud vili 'forbidden fruit'
The -tud participle may end in either -tud or -dud, depending on the sound that precedes the suffix.
1) -tud: when the suffix is preceded by a short vowel or the consonant s or h
2) -dud: when the suffix is preceded by a long vowel, diphthong, or the consonants l, n, r
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
Estonian, English or Russian private lessons
I teach: English, Estonian, Russian
Hi,First of all, I would like to congratulate you on the decision to learn or improve a new language. Whether it is Estonian, English or... Russian, beginner, advanced or Business language - you are in the right place.My name is Martin and I am coming from a tiny country in the Northern Europe called Estonia. One of my biggest hobbies is teaching and educating others, that is why for the past 3 years I have been living and working in Istanbul while teaching English to different age groups: kindergarten, school, university as well as adults. I have had students from Beginners to Advanced as well as several businessmen and CEOs of international companies located in Istanbul. What is more, for the last 2 years I have been teaching Estonian, English and Russian online through Skype that gave me chance to meet people from all over the world and help them on their journey of learning foreign languages in a comfortable and enjoyable environment.We are going to have a 20-30-minute trial lesson during which we can get to know each other, set expectations towards the lessons and schedule the timetable. The next step is simple - we start learning the language of your choice! As simple as it is :)During the lessons we will focus on making you speak even with the limited vocabulary because speaking is the key to learning a new language quickly and in a fun way!Cannot wait to receive your in-mail and help you on your journey to learn and speak a foreign language.Martin Read more
Very experienced teacher!
Group lessons possible