In this lesson we will take a closer look at the Estonian verbs.
Verbs in Estonian can express five grammatical categories: person, tense, mood, voice and polarity (affirmative/negative). Also, verbs can have the grammatical form of an infinitive or a participle.
There are 4 tenses in Estonian:
1) Olevik - Present
- Ma olen praegu koolis. --- I am at school at the moment.
2) Lihtminevik - Past Simple
- Ma olin eile koolis. --- I was at school yesterday.
3) Täisminevik - Present Perfect
- Ma olen käinud koolis 12 aastat. --- I have been going to school for 12 years.
4) Enneminevik - Past Perfect
- Ma olin käinud koolis juba 5 aastat, enne kui mu õde esimesse klassi läks. --- I had been going to school for 5 years already before my sister started first grade.
In Estonian, each verb has two kinds of infinitives:
1) the -da infinitive
- mängida --- to play
2) the -ma infinitive
- laulma --- to sing
There are three different participles:
1) the present -v participle
- jooksev poiss --- a running boy
2) -nud participle
- kulunud riided --- worn-out clothes
3) -tud participle
- keelatud vili --- forbidden fruit
There are five different grammatical moods in Estonian:
1) Kindel - Indicative
- Ma lähen poodi. --- I am going to the shop.
2) Tingiv - Conditional
- Ma tahaksin minna poodi. --- I would like to go to the shop.
3) Käskiv - Imperative
- Mine poodi! --- Go to the shop!
4) Kaudne - Oblique
- Ta minevat poodi. --- Supposedly, he is going to the shop.
5) Möönev - Jussive
- Ema ütles, et Marko mingu poodi. --- Mom said that Marko should go to the shop.
Passive and impersonal voice
Normally, Estonian sentences are either in personal or impersonal voice (instead of active and passive like in English). However, there also exists a stative passive form, which expresses the state that the object has reached as a result of the action. It can also be used as adjective that describes what has happened to a noun.
- Mina ehitan maja kaljule. --- I am building the house on the cliff.
- Maja ehitatakse kaljul. --- One is building the house on the cliff.
- Maja on ehitatud kaljule. --- The house is built on the cliff.
Practise with a private teacher on Skype!
- Private Skype lessons
- Learn any topic
- Flexible appointments
Estonian, English or Russian private lessons
I teach: English, Estonian, Russian
Hi,First of all, I would like to congratulate you on the decision to learn or improve a new language. Whether it is Estonian, English or... Russian, beginner, advanced or Business language - you are in the right place.My name is Martin and I am coming from a tiny country in the Northern Europe called Estonia. One of my biggest hobbies is teaching and educating others, that is why for the past 3 years I have been living and working in Istanbul while teaching English to different age groups: kindergarten, school, university as well as adults. I have had students from Beginners to Advanced as well as several businessmen and CEOs of international companies located in Istanbul. What is more, for the last 2 years I have been teaching Estonian, English and Russian online through Skype that gave me chance to meet people from all over the world and help them on their journey of learning foreign languages in a comfortable and enjoyable environment.We are going to have a 20-30-minute trial lesson during which we can get to know each other, set expectations towards the lessons and schedule the timetable. The next step is simple - we start learning the language of your choice! As simple as it is :)During the lessons we will focus on making you speak even with the limited vocabulary because speaking is the key to learning a new language quickly and in a fun way!Cannot wait to receive your in-mail and help you on your journey to learn and speak a foreign language.Martin Read more
Very experienced teacher!